Wednesday, September 3, 2014

57. Megh : SiddhRaj Raja and Mayo's sacrifice

गुजरात के इतिहास पर 'रास माला' नामक भाटों द्वारा लिखित राजाओं की वंशावली एक प्रामाणिक स्रोत-पुस्तक मानी जाती है। जिसका अंग्रेजी भाषा में फोर्ब्स महोदय ने अनुवाद कर छपाया। उस पुस्तक में 'माया' नामक ढेढ़ के आत्मोत्सर्ग का वर्णन है। जिसे गुजराती मेघवाल अपनी जमात का मेघ मानते आये हैं। तत्कालीन समय में कई जातियां पदावनति को प्राप्त हुईं और उनके सम्बोधानार्थ 'ढेढ़' शब्द प्रयुक्त होता था। मेघवालों के लिए भी यही शब्द प्रयुक्त हुआ है। इसमें कोई संदेह नहीं है। परन्तु एक-दो स्रोतों में आत्मोत्सर्ग करने वाले इस पुरुस को 'बाम्भी' या मेघवाल तो बताया जाता है परन्तु उसे सिद्ध राज सोलंकी का पुत्र भी बताया जाता है। यहाँ 'रास माला' का सन्दर्भ और मारवाड़ मर्दुम शुमारी का सदर्भ दिया जा रहा है-

रास माला, पृष्ठ-85-86
"TALE OF JUSMA THE ODUN."

"Once on a time, a countryman from Malwa came to Sidh Raj, and praised the beauty of Jusma, the Odun. The raja sought to possess her, and made many attempts to do so which were unsuccessful. At length, when he was commencing the Suhusra Ling tank, at Puttun, he sent his sister's son, Doodhmul the Chowra, to bring a number of Ods1 and Oduns from Malwa. Doodhmul set out to fetch them, and arrived at their village, and said that Sidh Raj, the Solunkhee, had a large tank to excavate and wanted the assistance of a number of Ods and Oduns. Jusma thereupon collected a number of her caste-fellows, and with her husband came to Puttun. Sidh Raj gave orders that the other Ods should be accommodated outside the town, but that Jusma should be brought into the palace. Jusma refused, saying, "Ranees sleep in palaces, it is fitter for the Odun to lie upon the ground." When the digging of the tank commenced, the raja in person sat looking on; he became very much enamoured of Jusma. He said to her, "Jusma, do not lift such heavy loads of earth, you will "injure yourself." She said there was no fear of that. He told her to take care of her child and let the other Oduns lift the earth. She said, "I have hung him to the branch of a tamarind tree, as I come and go I swing his cradle." When the excavation was completed, the raja paid all the Ods, but said that Jusma should remain and he would pay her by and bye. Meanwhile he gave the Ods leave to retire; Jusma, however, secretly went with them. When he became aware of this, the raja mounted and pursued them as far as Modheyra, slaying some of the Ods. Jusma upon this plunged a dagger into her belly, and; as she died, cursed Sidh Raj, and said that his tank should never contain water. The raja, returning to Puttun, found the tank dried up. He asked the minister what ought to be done that water might remain in the tank. The Prudhan, after consulting the astrologers, said that if a man's life were sacrificed, the curse would be removed. At that time the Dhers (or out-castes) were compelled to live at a distance from the towns; they wore untwisted cotton round their heads and a stag's horn, as a mark, hanging from their waists, so that people might be able to avoid touching them. The raja commanded that a Dher, named Mayo, should be beheaded in the tank, that the water might remain. Mayo died, singing the praises of Vishnoo, and the water after that began to remain in the tank. At the time of his death Mayo had begged, as a reward for his sacrifice, that the Dhers should not in future be compelled to live at a distance from the towns, nor to wear a distinctive dress. The raja assented, and these privileges were afterwards permitted to the Dhers for the sake of Mayo."

(Reference" Ras Mala (रास माला) or Hindoo Annals of the Province of Goozrat in Western India." Ed by Alexander Kinloch Forbes. Richardson and co, London, 1856; reprint 1878 papes 85-86)


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