Friday, November 7, 2014

80. Megh and Med - मेघ और मेद

मेघ और मेद- इस बाबत दिए गए पहले के सन्दर्भों को देखें। एक प्रश्न मेरे सामने आया कि मेदों (मेघों) का प्राचीन राज्य कहा था? मैंने उसे सिन्धु नदी के किनारों पर संभावित किया था। World History में उनके राष्ट्र के बारे में जो उल्लेख है, उसका सन्दर्भ नीचे दिया जा रहा है। आगे की वस्तुस्थिति आप जान लें। यह सन्दर्भ सन 1799 में प्रकाशित पुस्तक "A Manual of Ancient History" से दिया जा रहा है। जो मूलतः जर्मन भाषा की कृति से अंग्रेजी में अनुदित करके प्रकाशित की गयी थी। निम्न उद्धतरण पांचवें संस्करण (1829) से है-

2. Medic monarchy.
1.Different acceptations of the word Medes- The name of Medes is undoubtedly often used by the Greeks to designate one nation; it is, however, not unfrequently applied also as a common appellation to the ruling nations in eastern Asia, from the Tigris to the Indus, (or Persia, in the more extensive sense of that word,) before Cyrus. — With the Jews : nothing more than general hints of the Medes as a conquering nation.

2. Great Nations known to have existed east of Tigris- Although, from the accounts of the Grecian writers, as well as from the Zendavesta, it cannot be doubted, that long before the rise of the Persian power, mighty kingdoms existed in these regions, and particularly in the eastern part, or Bactria; yet of those kingdoms we have by no means a consistent or chronological history : nothing but a few fragments, probably of dynasties which ruled in Media, properly so called, immediately previous to the Persians.

a. Herodotus's History of Medes. Herodotus's Medea are certainly the inhabitants of Media, properly so called. Division into six tribes : among these, that of the Magi. — Ruling nation after the overthrow of the Assyrians.— Capital of their empire, Ecbatana. — Boundaries : west, the Tigris and Halys ; east, unknown. — Internal organization : graduated subjection of the various nations to one another, according to their distance from the seat of empire; rigid despotism ; and imposition of tribute. Line of kings between B. C. 717 — 5601. Deioces, 53 y. the founder of Ecbatana, d. 657- — Phraortes, 22 y. down to 635. He conquers Persia. Cyaxares I. 40 y. down to 595. He establishes military discipline among the Medes. Wages war with the Lydians, the Assyrians. — Irruption of the Scythians and Cimmerians, 625. — He takes Nineveh, 597- Astyages, 38 y. down to 560, when he was dethroned by Cyrus. According to Xenc- phon, Astyages was followed by another Medic prince, Cyaxares II. b. Clesias's History of the Medes, deduced from Persian archives, and contained in Diodorus. Probably a different dynasty in eastern Asia. Line of kings, between B. C. 800 and 560. Arbaces, conqueror of the Assyrians, 18 y. Mandaucus, 50 y. Sosarmes, 30 y. Artias, 50 y. Arbanes, 22 y. Artaeus, 40 y. and Artynes, 22 y. Bloody wars with the nomad races of the east, the Sacae, and Cadusii. Artibarnas, 14 y. Astyages, the last king." Page 26-27

"A Manual of Ancient History- particularly with regard to the constitutions, the commerce and colonies of the states of antiquity" ( Translated from the German)
By: A. H. L. Heeren
Publisher: D. A. Tolboys, Oxford, 1829, pages-26-27

Further he adds as given below:

"2. In the second period, 630 — 538, the Babylonians the ruling nation in western Asia1. — The Chaldaeans take possession of Babylon, there establish themselves, and afterwards extend their empire, by conquest, to the Mediterranean." Page- 28

लिडीयन राजाओं(Lydian empire के Maeoni - branch of carian race) के सन्दर्भ मे Asia में मेघों की समकालीनता पर फुटनोट -
"Contemporary with which were in Asia : the Medic and Babylonian empire. — With the Jews, the last period of the kingdom of Judah. — With the Greeks, yearly archons at Athena. — With the Romans, kings." पेज-29-30
Alexander के सन्दर्भ में पुनः उनकी समकालीनता पर देखे, फुटनोट पृष्ठ-31
"Contemporary in inner Asia: monarchies of the Assyrians, Medes, and the Babylonians. Jews : period of the kings after David. Greeks : from Homer to Solon. Romans : in the last two centuries the period of their kings." P-31
And many more in the ancient world history.

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