Wednesday, November 12, 2014

97. Megh : Ahmedabad

Land administration staff in a village-
"The village accountants, tolalis, who under the headmen keep the village accounts and draw up statistical and other returns, number in all 248, or about one accountant for every three villages, each charge containing on an average 1870 inhabitants and yielding an average yearly rental of £326 (Rs. 3260). Their yearly salaries, paid in cash, averaging £15 (Rs. 150), vary from £12 to £24 (Rs. 120- Rs. 240), and represent a total yearly charge of £3849 (Rs. 38,490)."

"Under the headmen and the village accountants are the village servants with a total strength of 1969. These men are liable both for revenue and for police duties. They are either Musalmans or Hindus of the Koli, Bhil, Dhed, and Bhangia castes. The total yearly grant for the support of this establishment amounts to £3530 (Rs. 35,300) being £1 16s. (Rs. 18) to each man, or a cost per village of £8 (Rs. 80). Of this charge £2184 (Rs. 21,840) are met by grants of land and £1346 (Rs. 13,460) are paid in cash."
" The yearly cost of village establishments may be thus sum marized : Village patels, £2805 (Rs. 28,050) ; village accountants, £3849 (Rs. 38,490) ; village servants, £3530 (Rs. 35,300) ; total, £10,185 (Rs. 1,01,850) ; equal to a charge of £23 (Rs. 230) on each village, or 7"04 per cent of the entire land revenue of the district."page145

"3 ' Since 1814,' writes Mr. Lely, ' the relations between proprietors and tenants have greatly changed. I have heard (1878) an old Girasia complain bitterly of his loss of position. Formerly, he said, one of the lower classes a Koli or Vatwdya, on the marriage of his son would not dare to put the bridegroom on a horse and parade him round the village with music. A very respectable cultivator might seat his son in a cart, but the horse was kept for Brahmans, Vanias, and Girasias. Now-a-days whoever can get a horse rides it. Formerly, not even a Vania would dare to come inside the Darbar (the home and premises of the Girasia) smoking a pipe. He would lay it aside before entering. It was thought unbecoming for the lower classes to smoko any where in the village except in their own houses ; and if a Girasia caught one of them in the street with a huka, ho would break it to pieces. Now even the lowest will smoke in the Darbar courtyard with impunity, for if the Girasia turned him out, he would go away and break his own head and charge the Girasia with robbery. The result would be arrest for the latter and consequent ruin, for even an hour in jail is held to be fatal to the honour of a Girasia. Formerly if a Kanbi, or even a Vinia, trimmed his whiskers or tied his turban in martial Rajput fashion, or if ho wore an ankle ring or a sword he would have had his clothes pretty soon torn off his back and himself probably well kicked. Now one does not know a Vaghri from a Kanbi, or a Kanbi from a Sipahi, and a Dhed may twist his mustachios and swagger about with the sword of a Girasia." Page-151 footnote
"-------. Few villages had the full staff of officers and servants, but as a rule there were several headmen, an accountant, taldti, and village watchers, vartanids, dhardsanids, rdvanids, and havdlddm? There were also carpenters, blacksmiths, barbers and torch bearers, potters and water carriers, Dheds who took away, skinned, and ate carcasses, and Olganas, orBhangias, sweepers and guides. Some villages had their hereditary priests. The village servants were sometimes paid in land, sometimes in grain. Among them the headmen gained least by the changes under British rule. They had no grants of land and had lost the power they formerly enjoyed of freeing themselves and their friends from the payment of revenue." Page-155

उन पर भारी टैक्स था । जिसका कई जगह उल्लेख है। उदाहरणार्थ देखे-
"--------.The new assessment of 1820-21 on the same village, was, in alienated lands, from the owners, the former rates, and from cultivators not owners, one-third of the regular assessment ; from Government lands, on the rain or early rice crop, for the best land £2 4s. (Rs. 22) an acre (Rs. 11 a biyha), for the middling £2 (Rs. 20), and for the poor £1 12s. (Rs. 16) ; for coarse rice 16s. (Rs. 8) ; for cold weather wheat from 12s. to 16s. (Rs. 6 - Rs. 8). Of cesses, verds, £42 14s. (Rs. 427) were paid by Vanias, £1 8s. (Rs. 14) by Jogis, 16s. (Rs. 8) by Rabaris, and 14s. (Rs. 7) by a Bohora's shop. A hearth, chula, tax of 4s. (Rs. 2) was paid by husbandmen ; from Is. to 7s. (Re. £ -Rs. 3|) by oilmen; Is. to 5s. (Re. J -Rs. 2\) by rice-pounders; Is. 6d. to 2s. (12 as. - Re. 1) by market gardeners; 5s. (Rs. 2^) by Kolis ; 4s. (Rs. 2) by trackers ; a Is. (8 as.) tax per head on milch buffaloes, puchhi vera, or tail tax, on all but cultivators ; a tax of £10 8s. (Rs. 104) on the Dheds for sweeping the village threshing floor ; £2 (Rs. 20) from the Vania for weighing grain, and £2 (Rs. 20) on cattle graziers for manure. To the survey officers the rates seemed too high, and proposals were made for lowering them."

"-–----The taxes, veras, varied in the different villages. Among them were taxes on ploughs, cattle, shops, butter, grocery, and manure, and caste cesses on tailors, graziers, potters, and Dheds. Bom. Gov. Sel. XI. 24, 26." फुटनोट at page-167

At page 211 पृष्ठ 211 पर शिक्षा की हालत पर वर्णन है एवं जातिगत आंकड़े दिए गए है। सन 1865-1877 के आंकड़ों में कोई भी मेघ समाज से विद्यार्थी नहीं था- शिक्षा में शून्य।

caste dharmshala or lodge- jamalpur division- बहुत सी जातियों के जातीय धर्म शालाओं का वर्णन:-"------– The repair and other charges are met from the rent of the outsiderooma. ---- is another lodge built in 1 849. Able to hold 400 persons, the lodge contains a Hanuman's temple and is used for Dhed caste dinners. The repair and other charges are borne by the Dhed caste funds.-------" page-300

"- Since the introduction of the municipality, the old city wards have fallen into disuse and in their stead the area has been divided into four parts,1 Shahapur in the north-west ; Daryapur in the north east, Khadiya in the south-east, and Jamalpur in the south-west. Of these Shahapur with an area of about 451 acres, divided into forty pols, has 6963 houses,2 2820 of them first class, and a population of 21,177 souls, of whom a large number are of the poorer class, Dheds, Vaghris, and Bhangias. Shahapur is the largest, poorest, and most thinly peopled division of the city. It comprises the old wards of Shahapur, Khanpur, Mirzapur, and Bhadar, and portions of Idarya and Khas Bazar. ------Khanpur is still backward with poor Musalmans, Dheds, and Bhangias.-------" page-320

प्रार्थना समाज (Prarthana Samantha and untouchables)-
"The Ahmedabad Prarthana Samaj dates from the 17th December 1871, when Government called on all classes of the people to offer thanks for the recovery from sickness of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales. At Ahmedabad some of the leading men of the city called a meeting of all creeds in the grounds of the training college. So largely was the meeting attended, that some men of high position and education, who had long been anxious to start a theistic society, determined to hold weekly Sunday meetings for the worship of 'God the Creator and common heavenly Father of mankind.' At the end of the first year (December 1872) there were thirty-four members, and the number is now (March, 1879) 109. The members are almost all Hindus, chiefly of the upper class, Brahmans, Kshatris, and Vanias, most of them Government servants and pleaders ; there are also a few husbandmen and craftsmen of the Kanbi, Suthar, Luhar, and Koli castes, and there is one Musalman and one Parsi. Caste- feeling is so far respected that no one of the Dhed, Bhangia, or other depressed classes is allowed to attend. Some Christians come to the meetings but none have formally joined the sect. So far the Hindu members have not cut themselves off from their old faith, or made any change in their marriage, funeral, and other family rites." Page-326

कबीर- मंदिर-
"------The Kabirpanthi temple in this division was built about 1834 at a cost of about £500 (Rs. 5000). The head of the temple is Hiradasji. The Kabirpanthis, who pray to Kabir and use no images, belong to twelve and a half sects, panths. Two other small Kabirpanthi temples, one near the Daryapur gate, and the other in Sankdi seri in Khadiya, have, on a point of succession, separated from the chief body.----"


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