Tuesday, December 22, 2015

144. Meaning of word jat

According to the dictionaries, Jut means a race, a tribe, or a particular race so called, while Jut means manner, kind, and likewise matted hair. But throughout the Punjab Jut also implies a fleece. a fell of hair ; and in Upper Sindh a Jut now means a rearer of camels or of black, cattle, or a shepherd in opposition to a husbandman. In the Punjab gene rally a Jut means still a villager, a rustic par excellence, as one of the race by far the most numerous, and as opposed to one engaged in trade or handicraft. This was observed by the author of the Dabistan nearly two centuries ago(£><ifti5tan, ii. 252.); but since the Jut* of Lahore and the Jats of the Jumna have acquired power, the term is becoming more restricted, and is occasionally em ployed to mean simply one of that particular race. The Juts merge on one side into the Rajpoots, and on the other into the Afghans, the names of the Jut subdivisions being the same with those of Rajpoots in the east, and again with those of Afghans, and even JJelotches, in the west, and many obscure tribes being able to thow plausibly that at least they are as liki-Iy to be Rajpoots or Afghans as to be Juts. The Juts are indeed enumerated among the arbitrary or conrt-ntional thirty-six royal races of the local bards of Rajpootana (Tod's Rnjattknn, i. 106.), and they
themselves claim affinity with the Bhuttees, and aspire to a lunar origin, as is done by the Raja of Putteeala As instances of the nar row and confused state of our know ledge regarding the people of India, it mny he mentioned that the links (or Virks\ one of the most distinguished tribes of Juts, is admitted among the Chalook Rajpoots by Tod (i. 100.), and that there arc Kukker and Kahur Juts, Kukker Kokurt and Kakur Afghans, besides Gukkers, not included in any of the three races. Further the family of Oomerkot in Sindh is stated by Tod ( Rajasthan, i. 92, 93. ) to be Pramar (or Powar), while the Emperor Humayoon's chronicler talks of the followers (i. e. brethren) of that chief as being Juts. (Memoirs of Humayoon, p. 15.) The editors of the Journal of the Geographical Society (xiv. 207, note) derive Jut from the Sanscrit Jyest'ha, old, ancient, and so make the term equivalent to aborigines; but this etymology per haps too hastily sets aside the suffi ciently established facts of Getae and Yuechi emigrations, and the circumustance of Ty moor's warfare with Jettchs in Central Asia. Some of the most eminent of the Jut subdivisions in the Punjab ;ire named S'mdhoo, Checnch, Vura'itch, Chuttheh, Sidhoo, Kurrecal, GonHul, &c. &c.

143. Province of MEGWAR

ROOPARAIL RIVER._—Has its-source from the Hills north of; the [Village .0f Seismee, in the Province of Megwar, and flowing through ahilly tractby the Village; ofIKara Palmdoo and the Town of Koraburjoins the_River Jaumbra, about smile East, of the Village of. Balow, making a serpentinecourse of 20 miles.


,"'INDEX 'MAP OF MAL WA ACCOMPANYIXG SIR‘JOHN MALCOLM’S REPORT ON THAT PROVINCE. Culcutta : PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT GAZETTE PRESS, NO. 1, MISSION ROW. Printed in  1824'.

142. Meghs in the Record of kutch-Bhooj

Meghs in the Record of Bhooj, Gujarat
REFERENCE FROM:
"MEMORIAL
FROM HIS HIGHNESS THE RAO OF KUTCH"
TO HIS GRACE THE DUKE 0F ARGYLL, K.T.,
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. WITH APPENDICES.
BOMBAY, PRINTED AT THE EDUCATION SOCIETY’S PRESS, BYCULLA. 1869.
सन् 1809 में कच्छ रियासत अंग्रेजों के साथ हुई। जमींदारों के अधिकार आदि को लेकर उनमें समझौता हुआ। सन् 1869 के समझौते को लेकर कच्छ के राव ने एक मेमोरंडोम दिया। जिसमें उसने विभिन्न पक्षों के साथ अपने जुरिसडिक्टसन् आदि पर पक्ष रखा! यह मेमोरंडोम बाद में प्रकाशित हुआ। उससे ये सन्दर्भ लिए गए है।
  उसमें कुछ ऐसे वाद भी दिए जिसके निर्णय का अधिकार राव को था। अतः उसने विनती की कि यह अधिकार उससे नहीं छिना जाय। साक्षी के बतौर कई वाद दिए। जिसमें कुछ वादों cases में मेगवाल megwal और कुछ में मेघवाल meghwal शब्द प्रयुक्त हुए है। जो वर्तमान मेघ जाति से ही थे!
   इससे यह प्रमाणित होता है कि उस समय यह जाति मेगवाल या मेघवाल से ही जानी जाती थी! इसमें सबसे पुराना case सन् 1747 का है। साथ ही यह भी प्रमाणित होता है कि उनके पास भूमि का मालिकाना था, जिसे भायड़ और एजेंसी ने मिलकर ख़त्म किया!
पृष्ठ.11_पर-- from page 11-
   From the Nowluhha Account Books for Sumwut 1803, A.D.1747.--
        -Fine from Summa Pudum (a) of Kaira (6) convicted of adultery with a Megwal woman.... .. .. .. .. .. .. Korees 10
पृष्ठ-   14   से, from page-14 ---
   -From the Account Books of the Kotwal (Police Oficer) of Bhooj far Sumwut 1873, A.D.-1817. --
           - Fine from Megwal Naya (a) and Mya (a) of Kaira (b) for a similar ofence. ( i.e. convicted of abdiction of a woman) koree 50

पृष्ठ. 15, from page 15--
---From the Account Books of the Kotwal of Bhooj for Sumwut 1874,  A.D.1818.
         -Fine from Megwal Jusa (a) and others (a) of Nutherkooke (b)1 for misappropriation of a camel hide .. .. . . . .. .. .. Korees 30,
         -Fine from Megwal Gungo (a) of Wummotee (b) for adultery ........ Korees 23-2
         -Fine from Mochee Wula J eram (a) of Mothala (b) for assault on his wife. Korees 50
पृष्ठ. 65,  From page- 65--
     -SUMWUT 1916. FROM JULY 1859 T0 JUNE 1860 M).
    -Cases, Civil and Criminal, taken cognisa'nce of by the Durbar to which Zemindars, and Subjects living on Zemindars’ Estates, were parties. No. Plaintiff or Prosecutor. Defendant. Subject.
165. Megwal kumma(a) of Veeranee(b) Sa Bhimsee(a) of Bhorala(b).. sbject-land.
पृष्ठ. 66,  From page- 66-
194. Megwal Ooga(a) of lakria, megwal Devji of lakria, subject- household things.
पृष्ठ. 71,  From page- 71--
317- Rana Sooltanjee(b) of Gaidee(b) . Megwal Jussa(a) of Gaidee- Subject-  Pregnancy by illicit intercourse.
पृष्ठ. 92,  From page- 92-
  363. Megwal Veeria(a) of Jatawara(b) of Ramwao Wughela Sewajee (b) of Jatawara, Subject- Assault.
370- Megwal Mullo (a) of Chitror (b) Megwal Momaya and Wala(a) of Chitror (b).. Subject- Killing two oxen.
N.B.——(a) denotes subjects living in the villages of Zemindars; whom Major Shortt considers to be guarantee-holders ; (b) guarantee-holders, (c) Mool-Grassias living in their villages.
पृष्ठ 18, from page-18-
Sumwut 1792, A.D.1736 ,from account books--- . Meghwal Moola (a) ...... Kaira __________
पृष्ठ 20 from page-20-
Sumwut 1874, A.D. 1818, from  Kotwal or police officer's register.......Jesa (a) ........ Nuveenal
   And so on

141. गुजराँवाला और मेघ

यह माना जाता है कि भारत से विभिन्न लोगों ने आव्रजन कर के लिए इस जिले को आबाद किया है।  यहां कृषि जनजातियां बहुत हैं, उनमें मेंघ भी एक प्रमुख जाति है, जो राजपूत मूल का दावा करती है, ये अपने को अपने मूल परिवार की बड़ी  शाखा का हिस्सा मानते है ,जिसे लाहौर, सियालकोट और अमृतसर के आसपास के जिलों में स्थित बताते है। अर्थात वर्तमान पाकिस्तान अ भारत अधीन पंजाब और राजस्थान व गुजरात आदि जगहों को ये अपना मूल वतन बताते है। विरक, वेरयच, हजरा, बावरा, चीमा, जोया या जुहिया, भाटी और पंवार आदि कई मेंघ उप जातियां,( virak, Varaich, Hanjra, Bavra,  chima, joya or juhiya, bhatti and panwar and other Megh tribes.) अपनी उत्पति राजपूतों से मानती है। हालाँकि यह उनके दिमागों वशीभूत है, फिर भी उनका राजपूतों से किसी प्रकार का कोई रोटी-बेटी का संबंध नही होता है।
    अब जो अपनी उत्पति राजपूत मूल से बताते है, वह ठीक वैसी ही दर्शाते है, जैसी कि इन उप जाति नामों को धारण करने वाली राजपूत जातियां बताती है। इन उप जाति नामों को धारण करने वाले मुसलमान और हिन्दू दोनों है। हिन्दओं में मेघ और राजपूत, जाट आदि अनेक है।अतः उस को यहाँ उद्धृत कर रहा हूँ। किसी दूसरी पोस्ट में इसका विश्लेषण और विवेचन किया जायेगा।
  चीमा अपने को पृथ्वी राज चौहान का वंशज और चौहान मानते है। जो दिल्ली से यहाँ आना बताते है। कई लोग मुस्लमान बन गए। जो बचे वे हैसियत और औहदे से जाति निर्धारित होने पर विभिन्न जातियों में खप गए!
       वराइच/वेराइस/बिराईस आदि.... स्थान और बोलीगत भेद से अलग अलग उच्चारण मात्र है, मूलतः एक ही खांप या शाखा है। ये अपने को सूरजवंशी मानते है, जैसा कि इस नाम की राजपूत उपजाति अपने को मानती है। इनका मानना है कि उनका एक पूर्वज जो राजपूत था, गजनी से पंजाब में आया था, जो पहले पहल गुजरात जिले में बसा। उसके 9 पीढ़ी  बाद देवीदास ने चेनाब नदी पार की और एक गांव बसाया। उसके आस पास ही इनकी बढ़ोतरी होती गयी और गुजरावाला में फ़ैल गए। इन में से भी कई मुस्लमान बन गए और कई हिन्दू, जिसमें मेघ व राजपूत आदि है।
         विरक/विर्क/बिरक आदि नाम धारी....ये भी अपने को राजपूत मानते है और विरक नामधारी राजपूत से अपना निकास बताते है। उनका मनना है कि जम्मू के परघोवाल पहाड़ों से उदरसेन अमृतसर आया और किसी जमींदार की बेटी से शादी की और यहीं बस गया। जिसके तीन पुत्र थे- दृगर,विरक और वरन् । विरक की संतान ही विरक/बिरक कहलायी। ये भी मुस्लमान और हिन्दू दोनों में बँट गए। हिंदुओं में मेघ, जाट और राजपूत आदि में खप गए।
      भाटी या भाटिया अपनी निकास भटनेर से बताते है।
इस प्रकार से गुजराँवाला के मेघ भी अपनी उत्पति अन्य मेघों की तरह राजपूतों से बताते है.....

140. Meg : At the time of Alexander, from the records of Megesthenese and Arrien

कंनिघम महोदय ने यह स्पष्ट किया कि आज के मेग/ मेघ अलेक्सन्दर के समय उनकी भाषा में megallae नाम से वर्णित किये गए थे। प्राकृत/पालि में ग/घ के लिये ह अक्षर प्रयुक्त होता है व ग व घ भी ।
उस समय यह जाति कहाँ व किस स्थिति में थी! देखें:
The hill-tribes between the Indus and the Iomanes are the C e s i ; the Cetriboni, who live in the woods; then the Megallae, whose king is master of five hundred elephants and an army of horse and foot of unknown strength ; the C h r y s e i, the Parasangse, and the A s a n g se,|| where tigers abound, noted for their ferocity. The force under arms consists of 30,000 foot, 300 elephants, and 800 horse. These are shut in by the Indus, and are surrounded by a circle of mountains and deserts.....
केसी cesi,लोगों को काठी,  cetriboni को खत्रि, आदि के रूप में पहचाना गया है। यह कहा गया है कि मेघ राजा के पास 500 हाथी थे, सेना में घुड्सवॉर थे और बहुत से पैदल थे।... page 142
Reference
ANCIENT INDIA AS DESCRIBED BY MEGASTHENES AND ARRIAN ; BEING A TRANSLATION OF THE FRAGMENTS OF THE INDIKA OF MECASTHENES COLLECTED BY DR. SCHWANBECK, AND OF THE FIRST PART OF THE INDIKA OF ARRIAN, BY J. W. McCRINDLE, M.A-, **• PRINCIPAL OF THE GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, PATNA, MEMBER OP THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE; }TN IVETCSITT OP EDINBURGH, FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OP CALCUTTA. WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND MAP OF ANCIENT INDIA. Reprinted (with, additions) from the "Indian Antiquary," 1870-77. <f a 1 1 a t tji : $ o m bag: THACKEK, SftNK & Co. THACKEK & Co. London  : TEUBNER & Co. 1877. Page 142

Thursday, December 17, 2015

139.Khemawati(ancient city of India) and Meghs

Khemawati (ancient city of India) and Meghs
But, while Kshemavati was the capital city of Raja Kshema, we have already seen, from the Buddhist records of Ceylon, that the name of his country, or kingdom, was " Mekhala." Now, I believe that I have been able to dis cover an existing remembrance of this ancient name, preserv ed in the names of two villages, situated only a short distance to the south of Khem-rdj-pur, and both of which are called " Mughdnwan." The Manora, or Manurama river , flows to the west and south of Khem-raj-pur. Four miles and a half to the south- south-east from Khem-raj-pur, and on the north bank of the Manora River, there is a village, the name of which is spelt " Mughanwan " in the maps; and, again, 4^ miles nearly due south (or the very least shade west of south) from Khem- rdj-pur and on the south bank of the Manora River, there is another village, the name of which is spelt " Mugh-gan- wan " in the maps. These two villages are only 2 miles apart, and they lie east and west from each other. The correct form of the name appears to be either " Meghanwa" or " Megh-gaunon" (for Megha-grama?). They would appear to be ancient sites, probably of coeval antiquity with Khem-raj-pur. Now, I believe that the names of these two villages are simply a local dialectic Hindi corruption of " Maghdgrdma," which would mean the habitation of a people called "Meghs-," and I believe that these "Meghs" were the people of "Mekhala\' and that consequently the "Mekhala" of the Buddhist chronicles of Ceylon was simply a Pali corruption of the Sanskrit Megh-laya, which would mean the abode of Meghs. From the whole of the foregoing exposition, I think it will appear pretty certain that I have discovered both "Kshema vati" and "Mekhala."
Page 184
Reference
REPORT OF TOURS IN THE CENTRAL DOAB AND GORAKHPUR IN AND 1875-76.

BY CARLLEYLE,
FIRST ASSISTANT,
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY, UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF Major-General A. CUNNINGHAM, C. S. I., C. I. E., DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF THE ARCH^OLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA.
VOLUME XII.
CALCUTTA : OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT. PRINTING.
Publication:  1879

20.— KH EM RAJ PUR, OR KSHEMAVATI. In the Buddhist books of Ceylon it is stated that Krakuchanda Buddha had been the "Purohit," or family priest, of "Raja Kshema " of " Mekhala." But in the Bud dhist chronicles, "Sapia Buddha Stotra," quoted by Remu- sat in "Fo-kwe-ki," and referred to by General Cunningham in his "Ancient Geography of India," the name of the city is called "Kshemavati," or " Khemavati." I had the good fortune to find the actual site of this ancient city, the capital of Raja Kshema. On a reference to quarter sheet No. 87 of the Indian Atlas, it will be seen that in the northern part of Pargana Amorha (District of Basti), at longitude 82 degrees 23 minutes, by latitude 26 degrees 56 minutes, 1 1 miles to the north-east from the nearest part of the Ghagra River at Ajudhia (or from the Ramghat or Belwa Bazar opposite), and 14 miles to the west-north-west from Bhuila Tdl, there is a village marked down with the name of " Khem- rdj-poor" near the southern end of a lake shaped like the letter "T." This village of "Khem-rdj-pur" is 8 miles dis













Sunday, December 13, 2015

138. Megh: kabirpanthi of chhatisgarh

Unfolding Pages from history: Megh and kabirpanth of chhatisgarh
130. Religion prevalence of dissent in chuteesgurh-
        Chuteesgurh to orthodox Hindoos is not only hateful as the land of the Dasyas and witches, but as the head quarters of religions dissent, as it is to its secluded  wilds that all those who opposed to the prevailing tenets fled to escape from their persecutors, and consequently Hindooism sits lightly on most of the people, while large numbers are avowed dissenters belonging to the Kubeerpuntee and Satnamee sects.  
   131. The orogion of Kubeer puntee and Satnamee sects-
            These two sects are said to have arisen about the same time and both evidently, like the older Buddhism, owe Origin of  their origin to a reaction against Brahminical  tyranny. Their respective founders, Kubeer and Raidass, are said to have both been disciples of Ramanund; and Kubeer is said by his followers to have first commenced preaching in Rewa, where their first Gooroo, Dhurum Dass, was installed in Sumbut 1,520, 1,4 63 AD. It is said that during the life time of Kubeer, but most probably after his death, Dhurnum Dass was driven to take refuge under the Ruttunpore Princes, and since then his descendants have always lived in Chuteesgurh. About Raidass, tradition has less to tell, as his mission was principally to the Chumars, and never Seems to have much influenced the higher classes, at all events in late Years. Now he is almost forgotten, his fame being eclipsed by Ghasee Dass the last Sutnamee apostle.
132. Point of similarity between the two sects-
        The two sects agree in their rejection of images, their veneration for life, their objection to strong drink and tobacco, and the sign of initiation in both is a necklace of wooden beads : but while the Sutnamees worship one God under the name of Sut nam. “ the true name," and have never distinctly deified either Raidass or Ghasee Dass, though there are signs that the apotheosis of the latter is not far off, the Kubeerpuntees distinctly regard Kubeer as an incarnation of the Deity, though they do not profess to address their prayers to him.
133. Points of difference between the two sects-
     The chief difference between the sects arises from the more aristocratic proclivities of the Kubeerpuntees,  and may probably be traced to the different social position occupied by their respective founders, Kubeer being a weaver by caste, while Rai Dass was a Chumar. Hence, the Kubeerpuntees, making their converts from a higher class than the Sutnamees, received many who were unwilling to give up their caste distinctions(these being preserved among the former sect), while the more democratic Sutnamees ignore all caste differences among the members of the sect. Similarly, while the Kubeer puntees pay Brahmins a. certain degree of reverence, some having their marriages performed by them, though the more orthodox employ a Kussondee Bunnia, the Sutnamees abhor all Brahmins, hatred of the race being almost an article of their creed. The sects difi'er also in that the Kubeerpuntees fast once a month, while the Sutnamees do not. Both sects bury their dead.
  134. Classes holding Kubeerpantee doctrines, and internal administration of the sect-
      The Kubeerpuntees include a large number of Bunnias, Kayeths, Telees and Koormees, as well as other castes. while the Gandas man belong to the  sect. Their principal Gooroo lives at Kuwardha in Belaspore, but he only exercises jurisdiction over the Kubeerpuntees in the north of the District, the office in the south having been many years ago delegated to a younger branch of the family which is settled at Dhumturry, and which is now represented by Kumod Dass. The Dhumturry Gooron is said to have all the poster of the chief Gooroo at Kowurdha, while he is not subject to the disagreeable necessity of dying 25 years after he has assumed office as the Kowurdha Gooroo must, if he has a proper respect for tradition, do. But at the best, either Gooroo has very little to do with his disciples, their intercourse being restricted to yearly visits made by the Gooroo to his followers in the cold Weather, while he is only sought by them when they want- their children to be invested with the sacred necklace. Their only distinctive festival in Raepore is that held at Koora. Bungolee, in the Simgah Tehseele, on the last day of “ Magh" each year, in honor of Seoree Narain, a Kubeerpuntee Mohunt of great sanctity, who is buried there. The concourse of pilgrims forms the nucleus  of the annual fair, which is one of the largest in the District.
  135. Internal Administration of Sutnamees sect-
       The Sutnamees on the other hand, at least all who have not been led away by the charms of tobacco, and become choongeeas or tobacco smokers (a name  which to an orthodox Sutnamce implies a state of unpardonable vice), visit their Gooroo regularly twice every year at Bhundar, in the Raepore Tehseelee, where the temple of the Sect, an empty building without an image. is situated. These visits take place in “ Magh" and “ Bhadon,” and each votary brings his offering. The present Gooroo is the grandson of Ghaseedass, but as he is a minor, his uncle Agur Dass acts for him.
136. Morality of Kubeerpuntee is superior to that of Sutnamees-
    In morality, if common report is to be trusted, the Kubeerpuntees are very much superior to the Sutnamees, though it must be remembered in justice to the latter, that their antagonism to the Hindoos exposes them to calumny. After a great deal of close inquiry, I must, however, say I think there is good ground for imputing some of the worst of Observances of' the Maharaja sect to some at least of the Sutnamees.
137.  Dissenters from Sutnamee and Kubeerpuntee sects-
        Both sects have suffered from the “dissidence of dissent.” _ The Choongcea 0r Sutnamee dissenters have  been already mentioned  and Kubeerpuntee have divided into two bodies, one acknowledging and the other disallowing, the Kowurdha Gooroo as a genuine “ Avatar” of Kubeer. The dissenters however are not numerous. Their Gooroo lives in Nandea in the Khoojee Zemindaree.
138. Thakoor Deo- The real object of worship of all the chuteesgurh-
        But these sectarian differences, though going deeper in the ease of the Sutnamees, have for the most part  little influence on the people,  which is concentrated  in their devotion to Thakoor Deo. Without a sacnfice to him no agricultural operations can be performed. The seed sown and the first shoots of the young rice must be presented at his shrine, and he must be invoked to bless the field before the crop is cut, while it would be the height of reckless impiety- to tread out or winoow the grain on a threshing floor where some offering had not been made to the great Earth god. Thakoor Deo’s power does not extend only over the crops, but over the whole surface of the Earth, and hence his protection is efficacious against Wild beasts, and an offering made in his honour at the commencement of the year infallibly prevents a tiger from taking up his abode within the precincts of a village. If he should do so in Spite of the offering, it is, as an old Malgoozar told me, a proof that the sacrifice was not costly enough and that it must be repeated, a doctrine which at all events benefits the “ Bygas."   Pages 47 to 49
Reference-
REPORTS ON THE LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE RAEPORE DISTRICT, CHUTEESGURH DIVISION. CENTRAL PROVINCE, 1869, 
EFFECTED BY :J. F. K. HEWITT, ESQ, B. c. s.
NAGPORE,
PRINTED FOR THE CHIEF COMMISSIONER’S OFFICE, 'C. P. AT THE ALBERT PRINTING PRESS. 1869

Saturday, December 5, 2015

137. Meg : At the time of Alexander, from the records of Megesthenese and Arrien


कंनिघम महोदय ने यह स्पष्ट किया कि आज के मेग/ मेघ अलेक्सन्दर के समय उनकी भाषा में megallae नाम से वर्णित किये गए थे। प्राकृत/पालि में ग/घ के लिये ह अक्षर प्रयुक्त होता है व ग व घ भी ।
उस समय यह जाति कहाँ व किस स्थिति में थी! देखें:

The hill-tribes between the Indus and the Iomanes are the C e s i ; the Cetriboni, who live in the woods; then the Megallae, whose king is master of five hundred elephants and an army of horse and foot of unknown strength ; the C h r y s e i, the Parasangse, and the A s a n g se,|| where tigers abound, noted for their ferocity. The force under arms consists of 30,000 foot, 300 elephants, and 800 horse. These are shut in by the Indus, and are surrounded by a circle of mountains and deserts.....

केसी cesi,लोगों को काठी,  cetriboni को खत्रि, आदि के रूप में पहचाना गया है। यह कहा गया है कि मेघ राजा के पास 500 हाथी थे, सेना में घुड्सवॉर थे और बहुत से पैदल थे।... page 142

Reference
ANCIENT INDIA AS DESCRIBED BY MEGASTHENES AND ARRIAN ; BEING A TRANSLATION OF THE FRAGMENTS OF THE INDIKA OF MECASTHENES COLLECTED BY DR. SCHWANBECK, AND OF THE FIRST PART OF THE INDIKA OF ARRIAN, BY J. W. McCRINDLE, M.A-, **• PRINCIPAL OF THE GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, PATNA, MEMBER OP THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE; }TN IVETCSITT OP EDINBURGH, FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OP CALCUTTA. WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND MAP OF ANCIENT INDIA. Reprinted (with, additions) from the "Indian Antiquary," 1870-77. <f a 1 1 a t tji : $ o m bag: THACKEK, SftNK & Co. THACKEK & Co. London  : TEUBNER & Co. 1877. Page 142

Monday, November 23, 2015

136. Lords of hills: genealogy Meghs of Jammu

Lords of hills: genealogy
Meghs of Jammu
"--------..---It was at this time that one of the distant branches of the family settled inChumba and another about or at Teera-Kangra- - The first of these is called now the Chummiall Rajpoot, the second the Katochee family ; and other members of the house became the founders>^ different principalities at present known by divers names, such as Patancote, Mandote, Seeba, Samba, Jesro- ta, &c. while the two principal or head members* of the family wandered for some time in search of a proper and suitable place of rest for their families. Ultimately Kirpal Debu and his * brotker*Singram Dehu settled in the then thickly-wooded and almost uninhabited hills of Dhahman, and about the spot where the present fort of Bhow stands. This occurrence is put down at about 591 of the Hejira,.or three years after their return from the battle of Thanessur. These hills were then but a wild, mountainous, thickly-wooded tract, very thinly peopled by a few Meghs, a poor race of low caste, and by yet fewer of a Hindoo race called Tukkers. But these hills, though wild, still afforded good pasturage, which was enticement sufficient to ensure the annual visits of the northern and eastern Ghaddees, — herdsmen and shepherds who generally live in and about the snowy ranges, north of Chumba, Kistowar, &c. and who were then a bold, independent and wandering race, who for ages past had been in the habit of proceeding with their flocks and familiejto the southern and milder parts, and to pass the severity of winter grazing their numerous flocks of sheep, goats, <fec. in the hdls now described. A long continued animosity existed between the bold and hardy hill shepherds and their neighbours, the poor and helpless Meghs, and each year's visit only brought on a new succession of quarrels and»sometimes bloody affrays. The Ghaddees in their annual visits monopolized and partly destroyed the best pasture spots, and even sometimes encroached cn the small tillage fields of the Meghs, who, too weak openly
to resist, sought to aveiage themselves and their wrongs 'by *""7 - nightly thefts and attacks, in which they carried off the , wiy^es and children of their enemies, whom th*ey usually sold afterwards in the Punjaub, &c. But the wild herdsmen always with fury, bloodshed and desolation, ^venged these barbarities. Such was the state of the hills when these two brothers came 'among the Meghs, and chose the place near _ V Bhow for their future residence. This poor and hitherto un- - * protected race were soon brought to cocsider the Rajpoot set- — X tlement among them in the light ef a blessing, and as a token of the favour of Heaven ; and they willingly acknowledged their claim to the title of lords and masters. The Rajpoot com munity, including the families of botU brothers, numbered only about t\vent3r persons ; but still their very name seems to have become a terror to the Ghaddees, who were brought by the superior prowess and policy ef the Rajpoots to enter into certain agreements and conditions, and to respect the rights of the now protected Meghs. Thus in course of time all animosity between these tribes was partly lost and for gotten, until the Rajpoot race grew so strong and numerous that at last even the very Ghaddees were obliged for their own > security to acknowledge the superiority and power ef the new colony, whom they in a few years were constrained to look on in the light of their temporary masters. However about the i— - ' year of the" Hejira 602, or nine years after their arrival, these two brothers are said, for some uuknewu reason, but most likely for their mutual interest, Kggraia/JAzement, and power, to have separated. The elder, Kirpal Behu, remained at or near the present site of Bhow, where hfe' had erected some huts ' with thatched roofs ; while his younger brother erected a small habitation of the same kind en the opposite hill to the west, and just on the opposite bank of the small stream, -Called the
Thovee, which divides the two hills, on the site of the present Jummoo, the places being less than a mile apart. Thus were the seeds of* the present gTeat and promising Hill principality sown, and thus those two brothers and their descendants slowly but steadily\ecame Lords of the Hills and of those around them. The 58th in the line of succession of the Jummoo or Jumwall family was the son of Singram Dehu, the elder branch, or that of Kirpal Dehu, being called the Bhow family, of which mention will be made hereafter in its proper place, The sixty-third chief of the family was the great Mai Dehu, who was the eldest of nine sons of Jey Dehu, and lived about the year 1389 of Vikramadita, or, as is mentioned, 749 of the Hejira, and is supposed to have been contemporary with Timor or Timorlung, Timor the Lame. He was the first of the family who had ever in those parts aspired to the title of Rajah. For this purpose he is said tothave taken a large stone (of about half a ton weight, and to be seen at the present day) from the bed of the stream that flowed round the hill on which his hum ble habitation stood, and thence carried this immense weight in his arms, up the steep paths to his home, where at a suitable spot he laid it down. Then collecting thither all his kinsmen and relatives on his side of the Thovee (then supposed to be about 500 in number) he, in the presence of these and of the neighbouring Meghs, was unanimously declared Rajah, by his own brotherhood and the people of all the hill territory, from the Thovee, westward to the Chenaub, an extent of about fourteen or fifteen miles of a wild hill tract, and then very thinly inha bited. He was now formally installed, and the ceremony was enacted, while he proudly sat on the huge block of stone, which was thenceforward considered a most necessary point in the creation or installation of his successors. It was to the story of his having (by the will and favour of Heaven) carried
this great fragment of rock the distance he is said to have done, •that he owed his own title of Rajah.* Henceforward this Rajgoot colony was treated with greater respect by thfc country people around, while the Meghs and numerous other new comers and temporary inhabitants, Hindoos, who fytfl fled from the Moslem rule and emigrated from the Punjaub. hither— all now looked up to> the Rajpoot chief as their rightful lord, prince, and protector."    Pages 232 to 235
Reference
A history of reigning Family of Lahore,
WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF  THE JUMMOO RAJAHS,
THE SEIK SOLDIERS AND THEIR SIRDARS
EDITED BY MAJOR G. CARMICHAEL SMYTH,
THIRD BENGAL LIGHT CAVALRY; WITH NOTES ON y malcolm, prinsep, lawrence, steinbach, McGregor, and the Calcutta review.
Publication: CALCUTTA: W. TRACKER AND CO.— ST. ANDREWS LIBRARY. 1847 , pp 232-235

135. Tribes and castes of Scinde province and frontier

Tribes and castes of Scinde province and frontier
IX.—The Dher or Meghawar Tribe.
    "An outcast aboriginal race, of low habits, scattered about the districts of Scinde, especially in Ghara, Hyderabad, Mir-poor, and Omerkot. Their religion is distinct from that professed by either Hindus or Mahomedans. They bury their dead in a position from east to west."   Page 376
Reference:
HINDU TRIBES AND CASTE : TOGETHER WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE MAHOMEDAN TRIBES OF THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER AND OF THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCES.
Volume 2
BY THE Rev. M. A. SHERRING, 
Culcutta: THACKER, SPRING & Co. LONDON:  Publication:1879,  page 379
See also:
History of Scinde, by Lieut. B. F. Burtoii, p. 323.

134. The tribes and castes of Bombay Presidency

The tribes and castes of Bombay Presidency
  " The lowest caste among the Hindus, and found in every town and village. From their nukks, or family names, most of them appear to have been originally of Rajpoot descent. For instance, we find among them Solankhis, Chavaras, Jhalas, Vaghelas, &c. The Hindus consider themselves polluted by their touch. Their profession is that of weavers, cobblers, wood-splitters, and tanners. They also take the hides and entrails from the carcases of dead animals. They are also called Meghvals, and serve as guides to Government ofiicers. " page 238-239
Reference:
HINDU TRIBES AND CASTE : TOGETHER WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE MAHOMEDAN TRIBES OF THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER AND OF THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCES.
Volume 2
BY THE Rev. M. A. SHERRING,

Culcutta: THACKER, SPRING & Co. LONDON:
Publication:1879,  page 238-239

133. Meghs from the pen of shradhdhanandji


RECLAIM THE STRAYED SHEEP AND TO PURIFY THE DEPRESSED CLASSES who were ready to go out of their religious fold whieh, when pure, had given consolation to their souls for centuries. The uplift of the so-called Untouchables appeared to be an impossible feat on accouut of the bitter opposition of Hindu orthodoxy to the movement. But the Arya Samaj put its hands to the plough and and the ground was gradually prepared for sowing the seeds of reform. The first mass purification began with the SHUDDHI OF RAHTIAS. a sect of Sikhism who were not allowed to sit on the same carpet even by the Khalsas, the religious founder of whose sect, the great Ouru Grovind Singh had himself boptized them with the Amrit of the Sword. In the middle of 1896 A. D. they applied for their Shuddhi and withiu the next few months a thousand and more were taken in the Arya Samaj as brethren, entitled to full social and religious rights. At first there were great persecutions in which the Arya Samaj ists had to suffer social ostracism even, but by lhe end of 1898 A. D. all opposition died out and the Rahtias, consisting of some thousands, were all absorbed in the Hindu society. In 1903 the Arya Samaj at Sialkot (Punjab) took up the question of the UPLIFT OF MEGHS who were considered to be untouchables. There, too, opposition was at first very strong, evenMuham- madans joining the Hindus in their work of persecut ing the new Arya Makashayas; but when more than half a lakh had been raised to an equality with other Aryas the opposition died its natural death. And then the Odes in the Mnzaffarnagar and Multan districts, the Domnas in the Punjab hilly tracts and others were purified in their thousands. At present a great movement for the uplift of the Meghs in the Cashmere state is workjng its way in Jammu and other places and more than 40 thousands have enter ed the Aryan fold and the rest are coming round in their thousands. So Punjab has been leading the way and the late census (of 1921) shows that in the U. P. of Agra and Oudh the Christian Missionary has begnn to complain of the obstacles put in his way by the Arya Samajists in his work of conversion. In and around Delhi lhe Arya Samaj has recon verted hundreds of so called untouchables who were Christians in name only, and thousands of Dhanaks, Chamars, Rengars and even Bhangis have been made safe from the inroads of Pauline Christianity for the future. The Christian Missionary had almost given up the -work of conversion in despair when they received help frem a very unexpected quarter. The Muhammadans had left off being very keen about mass conversion of Hindus and their work was proceeding imperceptibly by doles. It appears from Census reports that since 1911 the number of Muslim Bhangis have decreased and that of Hindu Bhangis has proportionately increased in the Punjab and some other places. As regards the United Provinces, in 1911, the Census Superintendent says on page 54 — " Conversions to Islam are so infrequent here as to be negligible." But during the heydey of the Non-Co operation movement, when Mahatma Gandhi laid down that one of the conditions for obtaining Swara- jya was the uplift and absorption by the Hindus of the so-called Untouchable class, the Muslim leaders saw their chance and nursed an idea of converting the Hindu untouchables to Islam. For me the question of uprooting the curse of un rehability was the 'sine qui non' of Nationality in India. Speaking on 27th December 1919 at Amrit- sar as Chairman of the Reception Committee of the
34th session of the Indian National Congress, I laid stress on National education and removal of Un- touchability as the two-fold means of evolving nationality out of chaos. As regards the latter my address read as follows : — " The nation lacks one thing. What is that ? Genl. Booth-Tucker of the Salvation Army stated be fore the Reform Scheme Committee that the six and a half croros of untouchables in India should be given special concessions because they were the an- chorsheets of the British Government. I would ask you to reflect and find out how six and a half crores of untouchables could be the anchorsheets of Govern ment. I would also request you to take a vow, while you are within this sacred Pandal, to so be have towards these so-called untouchables that their children may read in schools and colleges which your children attend, that they be allowed to mix with your families as your families do amongst themselves and that they may be allowed to put their shoulders along with your own to the wheel of political acti vity and advancement. Ladies and Gentlemen ! Do pray with me that this dream of mine may be re alized v After the Amritsar session of the Congress was over I again took charge of my work at the Gurukula, but when a Special Session of the Congress was called at Calcutta I joined simply for the reason that I had sent a resolution to the Reception Committee asking the Great National Assembly to make the uplift of the so-called untouchables a plank in the Congress programme. But unfortunately that resolution was not allowed to be discussed even in the Subjects' Committee. Before the Nagpur Congress met Mahatma Gan dhi had been to Madras where the depressed classes heckled him with questions about their position and Mahatmaji was obliged to make it one of the condi tions of obtaining Swaraj within 12 months that the curse of untouchability be removed. It was on the 15th August, 1921 that after plac ing the management of the Gurukula in other hands, I reached Delhi and found that the question of the depressed classes was becoming acute. I then orga nised the Dalitoddhar Sabha at Delhi and wired to Mahatma Gandhi for monetary help from the Working Committee. But I found later that the Congress could do nothing and on the 9th September 1921, I wrote a letter to Mahatmaji in Hindi from which I cull the following : — " I wired from Lahore that I would apply for financial aid through the Provincial Congress Committee but on reaching Delhi I found that the uplift of the depressed classes through the Cong ress was impossible. The Delhi and Agra Cha. mars simply demanded that they be allowed to draw water from the wells used by both Hindus ',' and Mahomedans and that water be not served to themthrough leaves. Even that appears impos sibles for the Congress Committee to accomplish. Not only this but a Mussalman Congressman whom I asked for assistance replied that even if Hindus allowed the untouchables to draw water out of common wells, they (the Mussalmans) would forcibly exclude them from those wells because the chamars ate dead carcase (murdar). I know thafthousands of these chamars do not touch wine or meat and those who were addicted to the eating of murdar are relinquishing the dirty habit as a result of the Arya Samaj preachings. I have written this letter to inform you that I . cannot apply, now, to the Working Committee for finan cial aid. I shall do whatever I can according to my limited means." An occasion arrived again when I moved the A.I.C.C. at Lucknow to take up the question of the removal of untouchability in right earnest, but no thing came out of it as the correspondence which I published sometime ago under the heading of " My parting advice " would show.
Pages 87 to 92
Reference
HINDU SANQATHAN : SAVIOUR OF THE DYING RACE,
By SHRADDHANANDA SANYASI.
Edition 1926, pages 87 to 92

132, Chamar of Sirsa and Megh

THE CHAMARS. According to the Census of 1881, the Chamars of this dis trict number 18,022, or 7 per cent. of the total population ; of these only 314 are returned as Sikh, and the rest as Hindu*. It is the third tribe in point of numbers in the district. They are very numerous also to the south and east in Bikaner, Rohtak, and much further east, and form about 10 per cent. of the population of the whole south and east of the Panjab. If the number of Chamars was rightly given at last census as 11,701, they have increased in numbers 54 per cent. In the Musalman villages their place as leather- workers is taken by the Mochls, who number 3,073, all Musalman except 132 who are Hindri. All the leather-work is done by Chamars or Mochis, who also work as labourers in the fields for wagps in money or kind. But in this district land is so plentiful that many of the Chamars are ordinary tenants and have given up leather-work for agriculture, making very good, prosperous cultivators,
little inferior to the J&ts. The Cha mars also do the weaving of blankets and coarse cloth in the Hindd villages, their places as weavers being taken in the Musalman villages by the Julahas. The Panjabi Chamars are known only by the name of Cha mar or Chimiy&r. Those from the Bagar like to be called Meghwal, and say they are descended from Meghrikh, who was created by Narayan. Any one wishing to be abusive calls a Chamar " Dhed," which seems to be the name of a large tribe holding a similar position in Kachh and Sind. They are also sometimes called Bhambi. Possibly all the tribes — Chamar, Bhambi, Meghwal, Dhed, Julaha or PaoK, and Mochi, engaged in weaving coarse cloth and work ing in tanned leather — are originally the same race, or at all events closely connected. The Chamars are divided into several distinct sections, which will not intermarry with each other. Almost all the Chamars of this neighbourhood are of the Chandor section, and will not intermarry with the Jatiya Chamars in the neigh bourhood of Delhi, who (they say) work in leather made from camels' and horses' skins, which is an abomination to the Chandors. On the other hand, some Marwari Chamars settled in Dehli, who make trips in this direction in the cold weather, selling leather ropes in the villages, refuse to have any connection with the Chamars here, who (they say) tan leather and eat the flesh of animals that have died, while the Marwari Chamars eat only the flesh of animals that have heen killed in the Musalman manner {haldl). All the Chamars of this neighbourhood intermarry with each other. They do not claim to be descended from any other tribe, and have no tradition of any special origin. The Chamars of this neighbourhood do not themselves tan leather— that is done by the Rahgar and Khatlk ; but the Jatiya Chamars of Dehli and the Chamars of the Pawadh about Ludhiana do tan leather. The Sirsa Chamars eat the flesh of cows, buf faloes, goats, and sheep, and work in their leather, but they will not eat the flesh of camels or horses, or work in their leather, nor will they eat fish, lizard, or pig. The skins of the camel and horse are left to the Chuhras. Cham&rs are practically Hindi! They have no special deity of their own, but worship the ordinary Hindu* deities, and make pilgrimages to shrines commonly held sacred, such as Ramdeo Gosayan of Runicha in the Bagar, Mairi-ka- pir or Guga Pir, not far from Sirsa in Bikaner, Hanuman, Masani of Gurgaon, Debl of Nagarkot near Kangra, Bhiron of Ahror near Rewarf". They have a caste of Brahmans of their own called Gurra or Chamrda Brahman, who wear the sacred thread (janeu), and do not eat with Chamars, but are quite distinct from the ordinary high-caste Brahmans. They accept offerings from Chamars and preside at their marriage ceremonies, which are performed, as among Hindus, by walking round the sacred fire. It is worthy of note that among the Chamars the dead are either buried or burned, as is most convenient ; neither custom is binding. Towards Bikaner it is more common to bury the dead ; towards the Panjab both customs are common, even in the same family. In either case the phul (if burned, the ashes ; if buried, the nails) are taken to the Ganges. They have no belief in transmigration, but believe the good in this life go to heaven (snrg) and are happy after death, while the wicked go to hell (narag) and are miserable. At funerals the women remain at home and weep, while the men go out with the corpse, mourning somewhat as follows : " tu hi hoi; tainne paidd kiya aur tainne mdrliya " — " Thou alone art. Thou madest and thou hast struck down." The Chamars have also a separate caste of Mirasis (Musalman), and another of Bhats (Hindu), both endogamous and distinct from the Chamdrs on the one side and from the ordinary Mirdsis and Bhats on the other, but probably originally belonging to the latter, and separated from them only when they took to serving Chamars.  Pages 23 to 25
Reference
A GENERAL CODE of ^ TRIBAL CUSTOM IN THE SIRSA DISTRICT OF THE PANJAB.
DRAWN UP BY
J.WlLSON,
SETTLEMBNT OFFICER
Published by GOI, calcutta
1882,

Sunday, November 22, 2015

131. The Dher or Meghawar Tribe

Tribes and castes of Scinde province and frontier
IX.—The Dher or Meghawar Tribe.
    "An outcast aboriginal race, of low habits, scattered about the districts of Scinde, especially in Ghara, Hyderabad, Mir-poor, and Omerkot. Their religion is distinct from that professed by either Hindus or Mahomedans. They bury their dead in a position from east to west."   Page 376
Reference:
HINDU TRIBES AND CASTE : TOGETHER WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE MAHOMEDAN TRIBES OF THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER AND OF THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCES.
Volume 2
BY THE Rev. M. A. SHERRING, 
Culcutta: THACKER, SPRING & Co. LONDON:  Publication:1879,  page 379
See also:
History of Scinde, by Lieut. B. F. Burtoii, p. 323.

130. Rajpoot descent

The tribes and castes of Bombay Presidency
  " The lowest caste among the Hindus, and found in every town and village. From their nukks, or family names, most of them appear to have been originally of Rajpoot descent. For instance, we find among them Solankhis, Chavaras, Jhalas, Vaghelas, &c. The Hindus consider themselves polluted by their touch. Their profession is that of weavers, cobblers, wood-splitters, and tanners. They also take the hides and entrails from the carcases of dead animals. They are also called Meghvals, and serve as guides to Government ofiicers. " page 238-239
Reference:
HINDU TRIBES AND CASTE : TOGETHER WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE MAHOMEDAN TRIBES OF THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER AND OF THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCES.
Volume 2
BY THE Rev. M. A. SHERRING,

Culcutta: THACKER, SPRING & Co. LONDON:
Publication:1879,  page 238-239

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

129 - DHAIR. (400)

DHAIR. (400)

"UNDER one appellation or other the Dhair belongs to every village community; and, though an outcast according to the Hindoo faith, is indispensable to all ; and in every Deccan village holds a respectable station as one of the barah balootay, or village council. The Dhair also is a wutundar, or hereditary occupant and office holder, and, in truth, is an eminently useful person. He is the protector of the village boundary, in regard to which all particulars are transmitted from father to son. In cases of boundary disputes his evidence is very valuable, and also true, for to give false evidence in respect to it would be to court death at the hands of the local divinities. He is also an authority in reference to sites of houses in villages, and in regard to the divisions of lands and the possessions of each hereditary holder, and can point out their boundaries. The Dhair is also the watchman, in a general sense, of the village and its crops. He has to go his rounds at night among the fields, and warn farmers of depredations whether by men or wild animals. He has to carry letters from one village to another, and it is his office to convey the collections made in the village or town to the head receiver of the district, which he does with celerity and faithfulness. He has to remove the carcasses of dead cattle from the village, and obtains the horns and skin as a perquisite. If a traveller arrives he has to procure lodgings for him, and forage and firewood, for which he receives a gratuity ; then one of the Dhairs has to cany the traveller's baggage, and act as guide to the next village. For these services the Dhairs receive rent free lands, of which they divide the produce, and they can cultivate lands if they please. They have also a right to a certain proportion of grain or other produce from all cultivators, and certain dues at village festivals, marriages, burials, or cremations, in the shape of money, shoes, a turban and waistcloth, &c. As a rule the Dhairs are very industrious. They and their women alone spin the finest thread which is used for the highest class muslins, which is produced from cotton treated in a peculiar manner, and spun in a close room kept lightly watered. In some instances they weave coarse cloth, but indifferently. With all these useful qualifications, however, the Dhairs are outcasts. They are not allowed to live inside a village, but have a suburb of their own, at some little distance from, or even adjoining the walls, where they have, in many instances, their own temples, generally of Hunooman, the monkey god, or of some form of Devi or Bhowanee. They profess to follow Brahmins, by whom many of their ceremonies are performed ; but they have priests of their own, who conduct sacrifices on great occasions. Formerly, under Hindoo rule, Dhairs were much oppressed : they could not wear decent clothing, nor take water, except from certain places ; and they were obliged to carry loads without payment. This, however, is altered now. The Dhair is free to do as he pleases ; he may even send his children, if he chooses, to school. He can enlist into the infantry or cavalry of the line — and Dhairs make excellent soldiers — or into the police, and many are grooms and officers' servants. Although Dhairs are meanly clad, and look miserably poor, yet they are not unfrequently very well off. They can always obtain a livelihood by work, whether in the fields or at home ; and their women, on gala days, arc not unfrequently gaily dressed, and wear gold and silver ornaments. They are as industrious as the men, both in the field and at home. Dhairs eat everything — flesh, fowl, and grain ; but their ordinary food is simple, and their wives are very good cooks. None of them object to ardent spirits, whether men or women ; but, except at some festivals, they do not drink to excess. There can be no doubt that the Dhairs are descended from an aboriginal race ; but what it was, or how they became subject to the Aryans, in the capacity they now are, there exists not even a tradition. In the population of the Central Provinces alone, the Dhairs represent 561,438 souls."

Reference,
"The People of India" volume-7 cited earlier
Publication year 1874 

("THE PEOPLE OF INDIA."
A SERIES OF PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTSN,
ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA,
AND
REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA
BY COL. MEADOWS TAYLOR, C.S.I., M.R.A.S.,
&c
EDITED BY J. FORBES WATSON, I.A., M.D., 4c., AND SIR JOHN WILLIAM KAYE, K.C.S.I., F.R.S., 4c.
VOLUME SIX,
LONDON : INDIA MUSEUM,
Publication: 1872.
ALLEN AND CO., 13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W.

128 - Punar: a clan of Megh community in Sindh and Western Rajasthan

पुनड या पुन्हार मेघों का एक गोत्र मन जाता है, जो सिंध और पश्चिमी राजस्थान में निवास करते है। ये प्राचीन काल में सिंध की एक वीर जाति रही है। मेघ समूह की ही एक उपजाति थी। मुस्लमान धर्म के प्रभाव से कई लोग मुस्लमान बन गए व कई लोग मेघ ही बने रहे।
इस पर एक कोमेन्ट people of India से दिया जा रहा है-
"THE Ponhars belong to one of the most ancient, and formerly most powerful, of the local Sindee tribes; but the period of their conversion to Mahomedanism is unknown. It is perhaps a strange feature of these conversions, unknown in India, that each tribe or section of the people has preserved its original distinctions. Thus the Ponhars remain distinct from the Narejas, and have maintained a more military character. The local influence of the Ponhars was destroyed by the Kuloras, with whom they were at feud for many years. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, they and their chief, Kaisar, were driven out of Sontanee by Meer Yar Mahomed, who obtained the aid of the Rind Belochees ; and the present principal residence of the tribe is at Mehar and Sehwan in Central Sind. The dress of the Ponhar shown is very similar to that of the Nareja; but he wears his scarf over both shoulders. The features have not the impressive character of the Belochees, but they have more force than those of the Narejas. The Ponhars at present are not a military class, but are persevering and industrious, and perfectly peaceful subjects."

(See,Description at serial no 315)

Reference:
"THE PEOPLE OF INDIA."
A SERIES OF PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE RACES AND TRIBES OF HINDUSTSN,
ORIGINALLY PREPARED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA,
AND
REPRODUCED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA
BY COL. MEADOWS TAYLOR, C.S.I., M.R.A.S.,
&c
EDITED BY J. FORBES WATSON, I.A., M.D., 4c., AND SIR JOHN WILLIAM KAYE, K.C.S.I., F.R.S., 4c.
VOLUME SIX,
LONDON : INDIA MUSEUM,
Publication: 1872.
ALLEN AND CO., 13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W.




Tuesday, July 14, 2015

127 - Inscriptions of King Shivmegh - महाराजा शिवमेघ संबंधी शिलालेख





यह महाराजा शिव मेघ प्रथम का शिलालेख है जो EI के 18वें अंक में 1925 में प्रकाशित हुआ।

Sunday, July 12, 2015

126 - Inscriptions of Megh Kings - मेघ महाराजाओं के शिलालेख

पिछले समय में वैयाकरणिक यदि किसी शब्द में से एक मात्रा कम कर पाते थे तो उन्हें वैसी ही खुशी होती थी जैसे पुराने ज़माने में पुत्र उत्पन्न होने पर होती थी. इतिहासकारों के बारे में भी यह सच है. जब इतिहास से संबंधित कोई नया प्रमाण या आधिकारिक दस्तावेज़ मिल जाता है तो इतिहास लेखक को वैसा ही सुख मिलता है. ताराराम जी ने अपनी पुस्तक मेघवंश इतिहास और संस्कृति, भाग-1 के पृष्ठ 196 से 198 (फोटो नीचे दी गई हैं) तक में महाराजा भद्रमेघ और उनसे संबंधित शिलालेखों का उल्लेख किया था. संभवतः, आज ही उन्हें 1925 में प्रकाशित एपिग्राफिया इंडिका वाल्यूम 18, से नई सामग्री मिली है जो एक शिलालेख पर आधारित है. यह आपसे शेयर की जा रही है.






महाराजा भद्र मेघ का कोसम शिलालेख, जैसा कि एपिग्राफिया इंडिका के 1925 के अंक 18 में प्रकाशित हुआ। उसकी फ़ोटो नीचे पेस्ट की जा रही है। महाराजा भद्र मेघ मेघ वंश का एक प्रतापी महाराजा था, जिसने कौशाम्बी और बघेलखण्ड पर शासन किया था। मेघवंश इतिहास और संस्कृति भाग 1 में इस पर कुछ विशेष प्रकाश डाला गया है। उस पुस्तक में कोई शिलालेख नहीं दिए गए है। परंतु उल्लेख है। कृपया पुस्तक के सन्दर्भ से इस मूल शिलालेख को मिला कर विचार करे।
सन्दर्भ: Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 pp 158 and onward.






कोसम शिलालेख: iii शिलालेख महाराजा भद्र मेघ का व ii महाराजा शिव मेघ से सम्बंधित है। इन दोनों महाराजाओं का संक्षिप्त वर्णन मेघवंश इतिहास और संस्कृति भाग 1 में यतस्ततः किया गया है!
     ये शिलालेख पहली बार एपिग्राफिया इंडिका के खंड 18 में प्रकाशित हुए परंतु अभी भी इतिहासकारों के अध्ययन में नहीं आये है। विस्तृत अध्ययन और शोध अपेक्षित है!

Wednesday, July 8, 2015

125 - Cunningham's table of dynasties and period of Megs kings in Punjab, Texila, Lat(Gujarat)etc.


कनिंघम महोदय के अनुसार ईसा पूर्व सन 80 में तक्षशिला आदि में मेघों की सत्ता स्थापित थी। नीचे दी गयी सारिणी देखे और समझें



124 - Megh Coins found in Punjab and Afghanistan


THE JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. में जॉन विल्सन द्वारा प्राचीन सिक्कों की पहचान के बारे में लिखे गए एक संक्षिप्त शोध आलेख का कुछ अंश यहाँ ज्यों का त्यों दिया जा रहा है। जिसमे उनके पास पंजाब और अफ़ग़ानिस्तान में प्राप्त हुए कुछ सिक्के भेजे गए थे, उनके विश्लेषण कराटे हुए उनमे मेघवंश के सिक्कों का वर्णन किया है। इससे यह बात प्रमाणित होती है कि ईसवी शताब्दी प्रारम्भ होने से पहले कन्नौज, पंजाब और अफ़ग़ानिस्तान में मेघों का राज्य था। विल्सन ने इन सिक्कों को क्षत्रप सिक्कों की श्रेणी में रखा है। ज्यादा जानकारी के लिए मूल लेख देखा जा सकता है, जो एशियाटिक जर्नल मे पब्लिश है-

"Art. X. — Brief Notes on certain Ancient Coins lately presented to or exhibited before the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society."
( Pages 126 to 131 )
By John Wilson,
D. D. Honorary President of the Society.

Original Text follows as under:

..."..................but having no Barbarian titles," I find in Captain Christopher's collection nine of Soter MEGAS, of two or three types. They belong to a class which is exceedingly numerous not only in the Panjab, where they were found, but in Afghanistan, where Mr. Masson procured two hundred and fifty seven specimens in three years. They have on the obverse generally a helmeted or coronated king with a nimbus, with out any inscription ; and on the reverse the figure of a man mounted on horseback, with the legend BA2ILEY2 BA2ILEQN SQTHP MEr- A2 sometimes in a corrupted form. "The large number of these coins," says professor Lassen, " prove that this [nameless] king possessed an ample empire, and did not reign for a short time. He must have ruled in Kabul and a part of the Panjab." The same distinguished Antiquarian and Orientalist says that " he must have belonged to a certain Scythian horde, which had for some time their abode in a country, where purely Greek and not native characters were adopted for the coins." He adds, " At an after period he perhaps used them ; if indeed the coins with native legends which M. Mionnet assigns him, be really his." In one specimen now before us, there is the appearance of such a legend as that now referred to, but the letters are so indistinct that nothing can be made of them. Mr. Prinsep makes the nameless Soter MEGAS flourish about 70 years B. C. He must have been prior to the conquest of the Panjab and Kabul by Vikramaditya, whose era, 56 before Christ, dates from a victory over the Scythians in the Panjab. Of the Kadphises group of Indo-Scythian coins, referrible to the time between the Christian era and the century following, there are seven specimens in Capt. Christopher's collection. It also furnishes ten of the Kanerhi group ; fifteen of the Indian Kanavj dynasty ; eleven coins which I have not yet been able to class, but of which something may be made ; twenty-one coins which are much defaced ; and one hundred and twenty one with Arabic and Persian inscriptions. None of these series, I have found time sufficiently to examine ; but, perhaps, I may be able to direct attention to some of them at a subsequent meeting of the Society, particularly if any peculiarities appear in them worthy of distinct notice. They form altogether a valuable accession to our Museum." Page 131


Please add it in last of megh coins punjab/afghanistan


"3. Dr. Wilson, on behalf of Captain Christopher. I. N., present the Society a collection of ancient coins made by that gentleman during his late voyages of research and experiment on the Indus. These coins had been assorted and arranged by Dr. Wilson. A great number of them belong to the Bactrian and Indo-Scythian and Kanauj dynasties, including one of Heliocles, one of Azes, nine of Soter Megas, seven of the Kadphises group, ten of the Kanerki, fourteen of the Kanauj or ancient Hindee series, eleven not yet identified, but of which some thing may be made, and twenty one much defaced. There were also 121, with Arabic and Persian characters, which had not yet been ex amined. On the most remarkable of these coins, and the Parthian coin lately exhibited by Dr. Buist, and some specimens from Dr. Wilson's own collection, some notes were read by Dr. Wilson, which will appear in the next number of the Society's Journal. A continuation of his paper was promised, should anything of novelty or interest be discovered on a further study of Captain Christopher's valuable gatherings." Page 185

Reference:

THE JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.

EDITED BY THE SECRETARY,

VOL. III. IN TWO PARTS. PART II.

DECEMBER 1848 TO NOVEMBER 1840.

BOMBAY:
AMERICAN MISSION PRESS.
T. -GRAHAM, PRINTER.

Year of publication: 18 5 1.









123 - Kutch and Megh


"GAZETTEER OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. VOLUME V. CUTCH, PALANPUR, AND MAHI KANTHA."

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS. Bombay

PUBLICATION: 1880.

MEGHVALS IN KUTCH(CUTCH)

"Of Depressed Castes there were four with a strength of 36,306 souls or 9.85 per cent of the whole Hindu population. Of these 35,142 were Meghvals, 837 Paradhis and 161 Mes, and 166 Bhangias. Meoghva'ls, also found in Sind, the Ganges Provinces, and Central Himalayas, ( 1 Vivien de St. Martin Geog.Grec. et Latine de l'lnde, 209. The Meghs, probably the Magians of Timur, are a large part of the population of Riyasi, Jammu and Aknur, a pure race of low caste, apparently outcaste in other places. They are perhaps the Mekei of the Aryans and to them belong the Mekhowal (Makvanas). They claim to be Sarasvat Brahmans. Cunningham, Arch. Rep. II. 13. Burnes (Royal Geog. Soc. IV. 93) speaks of the Megvars of South Thar as an aboriginal or Jat race. They are probably connected with the Mehars of lower Sind and the Megharis of Baluchistan, and are, perhaps, Pliny's (77) Megari or Megalloe and the Mokars of the Rajput chronicles. Vivien de St. Martin, 198. Burton (Sind 323) speaks of Sind Meghawars as Dheds or Meghvals, tanners, shoemakers and weavers, found in many parts of Sind. The Umarkot Meghawars were very well-to-do, with priests, guraras, and sacred books, polhit of their own. They were said to come from Malwa.) state that in a twelve years' drought in Kathiawar they became degraded by carrying and skinning dead cattle. Of nine branches, Bhuchiya, Bhuringya, Dhua, Dhopra, Gora, Kopal, Rhola, Runnal, and Rosya, they weave cloth, labour, and carry dead cattle. They worship goddesses. They have no headman, but the farmer of the tax on skinners of dead cattle is acknowledged as their head. Breakers of caste rules are required to give a dinner to their priests, gors. These priests Garudas enjoy the revenue and are the pujdris of the snake temple at Bhujia fort (see p. 64). On his accession a Garuda pujdri marks the new Rao's brow with saffron and ties a turban on his head. Bhangia's, scavengers, are said to be sprung from a certain Valam, who about 2000 years ago started the profession of sweeping. There are six branches, Dhori, Makvana, Parmar, Rathod, Solanki, and Vaghela. They worship goddesses, different families having different guardian deities. The Paradhis and Mes half Hindu, half Musalman, are hunters and weavers of leaf mats. . .." Page-83

"Village: In the province of Cutch there is one village or town to about every six square miles, each village containing on an average 475 inhabitants and about 163 houses. With the exception of the people of six towns, numbering 91,085 souls or 18"69 per cent of the entire inhabitants, the population of Cutch, according to the 1872 census returns, lived in 1019 villages, with an average of 388 souls to each village." Page 100

"Cutch villages are, as a rule, small and fenced by thorn hedges with one or two openings facing the east. The gates, made of thorns and moving on wooden hinges, are during harvest time closed at night. Some villages have high round watch-towers, kothds, generally out of repair. Outside the gate is a Hanuman, a large shapeless stone, a Mahadev's, and sometimes a Shitladevi's, temple, and a pond generally dry in the hot season, except a hole dug in its bed. To meet the cost of repairs, some ponds and wells have lands and Acacia arabica, babul, groves attached. At the entrance gate are the houses of the Meghval, the Kathodia, the Pinjara, the Kumbhar, and other low caste non-cultivating classes. Then follow, in the case of large villages, the houses of the barber, the tailor, the carpenter, the black smith, and the cultivators. In the centre are the houses of the village shopkeeper, the Brahman, the devotee, atit or gorji in Jain villages, a temple generally dedicated to Ram or Krishna, and sometimes a Musalman mosque. The houses, built of stone and mud, have, except in the Kora sub-division and in Pachham and a few other places on the Ran, tiled roofs. Near the gate is a large fold, vada, for sheep and goats, of which every village has one or two flocks. Fodder and cattle are kept in separate enclosures, where a member of the family usually sleeps."
"There was, in 1872, a total of 167,378 houses, or, on an average, 25' 75 houses to the square mile. Of the total number, 37,785 houses lodging 99,790 persons or 20-47 per cent of the entire population, at the rate of 2.64 souls to each house, were buildings with walls of fire-baked bricks and roofs of tile. The remaining 129,593 houses, accommodating 387,515 persons or 79'52 per cent with a population per house of 2-99 souls, included all buildings covered with thatch or leaves or whose outer walls were of mud or sun-dried brick." Page 101

Meghvals are Sober and Hard working:

"Of Leather Workers there was one class with a strength of 1237 souls or 0-33 per cent of the whole Hindu population. The Mochis came from Gujarat about 200 years ago, and from their family names Dabhi, Parmar, Chohan, Jhala, Makvana, Chudasma, and Solanki seem to have once been Rajputs. Their home language is Gujarati. They are generally rather fair and dress like other Cutchis. They used to drink liquor and eat flesh, but since they adopted the religion of Svaminarayan they have given them up. They are clean, sober, well-behaved, and rather idle. They make shoes in native and European fashion, saddles, water-bags, and bottles. Four houses work as gold and silver carvers, forty as embroiderers on wool and silk, making table cloths, caps, shoes, slippers, and handkerchiefs, and five as arm-polishers and gilders. They do not clean or tan hides. They earn enough for ordinary expenses and as a rule are well-dressed. They belong to the Svaminarayan sect. Their marriage, birth, and death customs do not differ from those of other Hindus. Their family goddesses are Ashapura, Chavan, and Brahmani. They have a headman, but disputes are decided at mass meetings. Besides the Mochis, the Meghvals and Turiyas clean, tan, and dye leather. The Meghvals also make shoes and are cobblers. The Turiyas are Muhammadans, generally earning their living as tanners and leather dyers." Page-83

"There are five hundred families of Gujarat Hindu shoemakers, settled chiefly at Bhuj. The Meghvals, another class of Hindu shoemakers do not mix with them. About seventy-five of them have capital, varying from £10 to £50 (Rs. 100-500) invested in ornaments or lent at interest. They earn from 9d. to Is. 3d., (as. 6 - 10) a day. They keep sixteen holidays in the year, and are sober and hardworking." Page 128

Majal Math and Meghwals
"Majal, or Manjal, a village seventeen miles west of Bhuj, has, about two miles to the north-west, in a low country surrounded by hills and overgrown with bushes, the ruins of Punvaranogad, Padhargad, Chapter XIII. or Patan, still showing traces of having once been a large well -peopled piaeeg oTlnterest city. Here, in 1830, a great number of Indo-Sassanian coins were found buried in a copper vessel.1 The walls, 2385 yards round, are easily traced, though all the masonry, except one narrow gateway on the west, has gone to decay.3 Within the walls are the ruins of two palaces, a mint, and a temple of Mahadev, all of stone without any trace of wood. In style they closely resemble the Kera ruins. Pun varanogad' s story is that it was built about a thousand years ago (878) by one Punvar son of Ghaa or Ghav, the chief of Kera in Cutch.3 Quarrelling with his family, Punvar, whose chief characteristic seems to have been cruelty, resolved to found a city and call it after his own name. When the city was finished, the architect was rewarded by having both his hands chopped off that he might not do work like it for any one else. Soon after, seven devotees renowned for their virtues and miracles came from Rum-Sham (Anatolia and Syria), and settled in a high hill near Punvaranogad. Hearing of their fame Punvar's childless queen had an underground passage dug from the palace to the devotees' hill. Helping them in the service of their god Yaksh,or Jakh,she after six months prayed them to ask the god to give her a son. But, for her husband's sins, until a sacrifice was offered in the palace, the prayer could not be granted. By the underground passage the holy men entered the palace and were performing their rites when Punvar, hearing there were strange men in the women's rooms, forced his way in, seized the devotees, and set them with bare feet to tread out corn in a threshing floor bristling with harrow-spikes. Pitying their sufferings a friendly barber offered to take the place of one of them, while he went to call Yaksh to their aid. Yaksh, from western Asia, heard the prayer, and, with an earthquake that shook the hills, appeared with seventy-one brothers and a sister, Sayari.4 Called on to give up the holy men, Punvar refused and by the help of the gods and a magic amulet suffered nothing from the arrows of Yaksh' s brothers. Then Sayari, taking the form of a mosquito, bit Punvar on the arm so that he drew off his amulet, and, in the siege, a stone falling from the roof broke his head. Yaksh cursed the town and it has since lain desolate.6 Another story is that in the eighth century of the Christian era, King Punvar oppressing the Sanghars, they sought the aid of some foreigners from western Asia. Seventy-two horsemen came, and, establishing themselves on a hill three miles from Punvaranogad, took the fort and killed the chief. The Sanghars named this hill Kakad- gad in honour of the strange leader Kakad, and, out of respect for the saviours, called them Yakshas after the fair-skinned horse-riding demi-gods of that name.1 In their honour the Sanghars made images Places oFlnterest. °^ tne seventy-two horsemen, set them on a railed platform on Punvaranogad, with their faces towards the south, and instituted a Masjau* a fair on the second Monday of Bhddrapad (September -October). This fair lasting two days is attended by about 16,000 pilgrims, mostly Cutch Hindus. Except the Sanghars, who are staunch devotees of the Yakshas and believe in no other gods, most of the pilgrims attend either for trade or pleasure. The trade, in rice, sugar, oil, almonds, cardamoms, pulses, cocoanuts, groceries, cloth, wood, bullocks, horses, camels, goats, sheep, cows, buffaloes, and other articles, is valued at from £5000 to £7500 (Rs. 50,000 - 75,000). The large palace, upper storied and surrounding an open quadrangle, about fifty-five feet square and twenty high, tastefully built of very large blocks of stone, stands on the north side of the city. The front porch and colonnade are ornamented with carving. The upper story and the very heavy stone terraced roof are each supported by eighty -four pillars, each pillar one block of stone, round, and with capitals carved into figures of men and animals. The small, or half -day palace, addho tiro, for it was only twelve hours building, one storied, of stone, and with rather poor carving, is forty feet long by thirty-three broad. There are two rooms in the back with two verandahs. The roof is a flat terrace of massive stone slabs, joined with dove-tails of iron and plastered with cement 1 \ inches thick. It seems to have stood in a garden watered by a well now filled with earth and stones and overgrown with trees. In the centre of a platform, 7 feet 9 inches high 160 feet long and 41 wide, stands a temple of Mahadev, 50 feet 9 inches long and 22 feet 3 inches wide. In each corner of the platform is a small ruined shrine. Between the ruined entrance and the porch is a hollow for sacrificial fire, agnikund. The temple, facing the west, of blocks of grey and black iron sandstone put together without cement, must have stood about fifty feet high. The porch, 26 i feet long and 18 wide, has 16 pilasters and 8 square, 12 feet high, pillars forming two aisles. In the brackets are figures of men and lions. The dome has fallen, but an upper floor, with rosettes in the middle of the ceiling and a cornice of creeping plants cut in the stone, is entire. Above the lintel are large figures of musicians. The upper part of the shrine has fallen and been rebuilt. Near the temple are some tombstones apparently of later date, but without any writing.
"At some distance west of the fort are two ruined Mahadev temples. Chapter XIII. They are said to have been built by Dheds or Meghvals, but Places of Interest, the richness of the sculpture and the size and style of the materials Majal or make this doubtful. One of them, of the same stone as the ' half- day Manjal. palace,' stands on a platform 70 feet long 50 wide and 15 high, built of large blocks ornamented with bands of carving and with a ruined shrine at each corner. In front of the central shrine were two domed porches, one of which is still standing. In this porch, ten feet high pillars support a dome of excellent workmanship with, under its centre, a sacred fire hollow, agnikund. The shrine, with a richly carved doorway, is ten feet square. The other temple, smaller and standing on a platform twenty feet broad, is all in ruins.1 Of the mint the only trace is a low stone wall enclosing a space of 1 20 by 80 feet. Inside of the enclosure is a small building apparently once a temple." Pages 234-237
Reference:

"GAZETTEER OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. VOLUME V. CUTCH, PALANPUR, AND MAHI KANTHA."

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS. Bombay

PUBLICATION: 1880.