Saturday, May 9, 2015

116. The Races of Mankind - मानव वंश

(जो पाठक मेघों को वंश के आधार पर समझना चाहते हैं उनके लिए नीचे दिया गया संदर्भ बहुत उपयोगी हो सकता है.)

The Races of Mankind.
Distinctions in form, color, and physiognomy divide the human species into four great types, or races, known as the Black (Ethiopian), the Red (American), the Yellow (Mongolian), and the White (Caucasian). These races subdivide themselves into families; and these, again, into nations, tribes, and clans. As to which of these great races is the oldest, or the original type, we have no positive knowledge; however, many testimonies - ethnological, linguistic, and his torical, concur in leading us to assume that they all stand in the relation of children to an original mother-type that is lost. We must not suppose these four types to be sharply marked off each from all the others: they shade into one another by insensible gradations. Thus, passing from the temperate regions of Northern Africa to the tropical countries of the interior of that continent, we find the different tribes encountered exhibiting a "chromatic scale" that embraces all the shades of color, from the slightly bronzed Caucasian to the jet-black negro. Yet we know that those race characteristics to which we have referred, though capable of being greatly modified by climate and the varying conditions of life, are very persistent. There has been no perceptible change in the great types during historic times. The paintings upon the oldest Egyptian monuments show us that at the dawn of history, about five thousand years ago, the principal races were as distinctly marked as now, each bearing its racial badge of color and physiognomy. As early as the times of Jeremiah, the permanency of physical characteristics had passed into the proverb, "Can the Ethiopian change his skin ?"
On account of this persistent character of form, complexion, and physiognomy, these physical distinctions form a better basis of classification than language ; for migrations and conquests often result in a people's giving up their own and adopting a foreign tongue, while at the same time retaining all their physical peculiarities. To efface these requires a great lapse of time. Thus the Jews have in general adopted the languages of the different peoples among whom they have found a home ; but the Hebrew physiognomy is as marked to-day as it was three thousand years ago. Still we must not forget that any classification which we may make, ethnic or linguistic, is rather convenient than absolutely accurate.
The White Race and its Families.
The White race exhibits the most perfect type, physically, intellectually, and morally, of all the varieties of mankind. It is the race with which we shall be almost exclusively concerned, as the first three races — the Black, the Red, and the Yellow — have scarcely assumed any part in the drama of history. Possessing richer mental and spiritual endowments than the other races, and animated, in most of its branches, with a wonderful energy, the migrations and conquests of its different peoples, and the achievements of its various families in the fields of science, art, literature, philosophy, and religion, fill most of the pages of the historian, and render instructive the story he has to tell. This type subdivides itself into four great families— the Turanian, the Hamitic, the Semitic, and the Aryan, or Indo-European (formerly called Japhetic). Each of these branches includes a large number of nations and tribes. In intellectual and spiritual gifts, these families rank inversely as named above. The Turanians have never evinced any aptitude for the arts and sciences, or love for the higher walks of culture; while the last three, in the order mentioned, have been successively the standard-bearers of the constantly advancing culture and civilization of the world.
The Turanian Tribes. — The Turanian family includes many and widely separated nations and tribes, which occupy a great part of Northern and Central Asia and large regions in Europe. Among its chief peoples may be enumerated the Turks, Huns, Hungarians, Tartars, Avars, Esthonians, Finns, Lapps, Iberians, and Basques. In the remotest times the peoples of this race had spread themselves over all Europe and Asia. They were the first intruders upon these virgin continents, save in some quarters, as in India, where they seem to have encountered a still earlier negro population. Whence they came, or at how early a period they took possession of the continents, we can not say; we are only certain that when, between 2000 and 3000 B.C., the Semites and Aryans left their overcrowded homes in Central Asia, and went out in search of new abodes, everywhere they went, in India, in Persia, in Mesopotamia, in Asia Minor, and in Europe, they found tribes of this family already in possession of the soil. These aboriginal inhabitants were either exterminated or absorbed by the new-comers. In Europe, however, two small areas of this primitive population escaped the common fate — the Basques sheltered among the Pyrenees, and the Finns and Lapps in the far North. (Some consider the Etrurians in Italy as another remnant of the same race.) These little -patches of primitive population have been likened to islands rising above the waters of a destructive inundation. The Hungarians and Turks are Turanian peoples that have thrust themselves into Europe during historic times. The rude stone implements found in the caves and river- gravels of Western Europe; the shell-mounds, or kitchen-middens, upon the shores of the Baltic ; and the Swiss lake- habitations, are supposed to be relics of this prehistoric race.
The Hamitic Peoples. — The Hamites are called the pioneers in art, science, and government. They embraced the earliest communities that emerged from barbarism — the Cushites, or
Ethiopians, the Egyptians, the early Chaldaeans, and the Ca- naanites. We shall see hereafter in how great a degree the Semites and Aryans were indebted to this race for the germs of their learning and culture. As in the case of the Turanians, we are without any positive knowledge respecting the original seats of the Hamites and their prehistoric migrations. In the very first dawn of historic time, we discover the chief peoples of this race already in place : the Egyptians are settled in the Valley of the Nile, the Cush- ites in Ethiopia and Southern Arabia, and the Chaldaans are building great cities in the lowlands of the Tigris and the Euphrates. Some think that in the dim historic twilight the ancestors of the Canaanites and the Phoenicians (earlier) may be descried moving from the shores of the Persian Gulf across the Mesopotamian plains, towards the hill country of Palestine.
The Semitic Nations. — The Semitic family includes among its chief peoples the ancient Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Hebrews, the later Phoenicians, and the Arabians. Many testimonies point to the hill country (Armenia) bordering the Valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates on the north, as the original abode of this family. From that region its clans and tribes pushed southward, and in time distributed themselves over the greater part of Southwestern Asia. In the upper portion of the Tigro-Euphrates Valley, they established the great Assyrian Empire, which for many centuries held proud sway over all the peoples between the hills of Persia and the Mediterranean. In the lowland country of the same river-basin, they mingled with the Hamites, already in possession of the soil, and formed the mixed people of the later Babylonian Empire. The evidence of language and other testimonies also lead some to believe that other portions of the same race penetrated into Egypt in the most remote times, and blended their blood and culture with the Hamitic people of the Nile Valley.
We possess more definite knowledge of the movements of another branch of this family. About 2000 B.C., differences in religious belief led a Semitic tribe, called the Abrahamic, to separate itself from kindred clans then dwelling near the head of the Persian Gulf, and go out in search of new abodes. Their patriarch Abraham, who was inspired with a lofty faith in the God whom he served, led this little company across the Mesopotamian plains, and up into the country now called Palestine. The little band became in time strong enough to drive out or exterminate the Canaanitish (Hamitic) inhabitants of the land, and grew into the great Hebrew nation, which was destined to exert a moulding influence upon the religion and civilization of the world. It was not until the beginning of the Mediaeval period that the Arabian tribes assumed any important part in the transactions of history. Then, under the name of Saracens, and as teachers of a new faith, called from its founder Mohammedanism, they issued from the deserts of the Arabian peninsula, and swiftly spread their authority and religion over all the countries of Western Asia and large parts of Africa. The varied movements of the Semites, their displacement of the Hamites, and their comminglings with these earlier peoples, render it extremely difficult to classify the nations that arose in the regions where these two families, or races, touched and over lapped each other. Especially is this true in the case of the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, and the Chaldaeans. By some, all these peoples have been declared to be Semitic ; while others have called them all Hamitic. From the evidence we now possess, we must think of the original settlers of Egypt, Chaldaea, and probably Phoenicia, as Hamites, who were afterwards Semitized by the different Semitic peoples with whom they came in contact and blended.
The Aryan Family. — The Aryan, or Indo-European, though probably the youngest, is the most widely scattered family of the White race. It includes among its members the ancient Hindus, the Medes and Persians, the classic Greeks and Romans, and the modern descendants of all these nations ; also the Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic peoples of Europe, and their colonists that have peopled the New World, and taken possession of other parts of the earth. This is the family to which we ourselves belong. Migrations of the Aryans. — The original seats of the Aryan peoples were the highlands of Central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea and north of the Hindu Kush Mountains. This upland country, now for the most part arid and uninviting, was in remote times a delightful region that drew forth unbounded praise from the early Aryan poets. Gradual changes in the climate, which rendered the country inhospitable, pressure of population, and religious disputes and wars caused the Aryan household, at a period that cannot be placed later than 3000 B.C., to begin to break up and scatter, and the different clans and tribes to set out in search of new dwelling-places. One branch of the family, called the Indo-Iranic, the ancestors of the Hindus and the Persians, turning from the primitive home, moved southward, and, for a long time after separation from the other members of the household, lived together as one family, united in a single faith and worship. But difference in religious belief arising, caused, it is supposed, by the teachings of the great prophet Zoroaster, the company was divided into two bands, which parted abruptly the one from the other. One of these, holding on their way to the south, climbed the snowy passes of the Hindu Kush, which lay in their path, and, descending upon the plains beyond, drove out the Turanian tribes they found occupying the land, and became the ancestors of the Hindus. The other company turned to the southwest, and, spreading themselves over the table-lands of Iran, became the progenitors of the Medes and Persians. About the time of these migrations to the south and south-west, other clans set their faces towards Europe. The journey of these families was long and eventful. The stream of migration that set in this direction was divided into two branches. One division skirted the southern shore of the Euxine, and, entering Europe by the way of the Hellespont or over the thickly strewn islands of the JEgean, pushed themselves into the peninsulas of Greece and Italy, and founded the Greek and Roman nations. The second division passed to the north of the Black Sea, and, crossing the rivers that lay in their path, poured into Central Europe. The vanguard of these tribes are known as the Celts. After them came the Germanic tribes, who crowded the former out on the westernmost edge of Europe up into the corners of France and out upon the British Isles. These hard-pressed Celts are represented to-day by the Welsh, the Irish, and the Highland Scots. Behind the Germanic peoples were the Slavonic folk, who pushed the former hard against the Celts, and, when they could urge them no farther to the west, finally settled down and became the ancestors of the Russians, Bohemians, Poles, Servians, and other kindred nations. Although these migratory movements of the various clans and tribes of this wonderful Aryan family commenced in the early morning of history, some five thousand years ago, still we must not think of them as something past and unrelated to the present. These movements, begun in those remote times, are still going on. The overflow of the population of Europe into the different regions of the New World is simply a continuance of the outpourings of the primitive Aryan household into the surrounding countries. Everywhere the other races have given way before the advance of the Aryan peoples, or have been absorbed by them. Having possessed themselves of the riches of the Hamitic and Semitic civilizations having made their own the wisdom of the Egyptians, the arts of the Assyrians, the religion of the Hebrews they have assumed the position of teachers among the families of mankind, and are rapidly spreading their arts and sciences and culture over the earth.
Early Culture of the Aryans. — One of the most fascinating studies of recent growth is that which reveals to us the customs and beliefs of the early Aryan peoples while their ancestors were yet living together as a single household in Central Asia. Upon comparing the myths, legends, ballads, and nursery tales of the different Aryan peoples, we discover the curious fact that, under various disguises, they are the same. Jack the Giant- killer with his seven league boots is identical with Mercury with his winged sandals. William Tell with his unerring aim is the archer-god Apollo with his "twanging bow." And many of our nursery tales are found to be identical with those with which the Hindu children are amused. But the discovery should not surprise us. We and the Hindus are kinsmen, children of the same home ; so now, when after a long separation we meet, the tales we tell are the same, for they are the stories that were told around the common hearth-fire of our Aryan forefathers. And when we compare certain words in different Aryan languages, we often find them alike in form and meaning ; hence we infer that these words were used in the primitive household. Such words, preserved in the strata of language, are to the philologist what fossils, buried in the strata of the earth, are to the geologist. Each has a story to tell. Thus take our word daughter. This occurs with little change of form in several of the Aryan tongues (Sanscrit, or old Hindu, duhitor; Zend, or old Persian, dughdhor; Teutonic, or German, dughtor). Now, in Sanscrit, which language has preserved most unchanged the ancient Aryan speech, this word means a milk maid. Here, then, we have two facts : that the cow or goat had been domesticated by our ancestors before they left Central Asia ; and that the girls of the family tended and milked the herds.
Our knowledge of the prehistoric culture of the Aryans, thus gained by the science of comparative philology and mythology, may be summed up as follows : They possessed a simple mono theistic faith, or belief in a Supreme Being, whom they called the Heaven-Father (Dyaus-Pitar). They had advanced beyond the nomadic state were farmers and herdsmen, and dwelt in towns defended by walls. "Their wealth was reckoned in cows, and cows were the circulating medium, with sheep and pigs for small change." They introduced these animals, as well as the horse, goat, and dog, into Europe. (The Turanian people whom they displaced had no domestic animals.) They kept bees and got intoxicated upon a beverage made from the honey. " Their wheat was cut with the sickle, threshed and winnowed, and carried to mill in wagons fitted with wheels and axletrees. The blacksmith's work, with hammer and anvil and forge and bellows, was also carried on. Sewing and spinning were feminine occupations, and garments were woven out of sheep's wool. The art of tanning was also practised, and leather shoes were worn" (Fiske). They were fair builders, and navigated the rivers and inland seas of their regions with canoes or skiffs. They rode in wagons, but did not ride horseback. They were versed in the art of war, and had made beginnings in astronomy and mathematics. The father was head of the family, in which the wife held an honored position. The children were given names expressive of love and endearment. The families were united to form village-communities, ruled by a chief, or patriarch, who was assisted by a council of seven. These village-communities again united to form clans or tribes, at the head of which was a king, or feudal lord, chosen from among the patriarchs. This " people's father " was consecrated to his office by being seated on a stone, a custom still preserved in the coronation of the sovereigns of England.* From the decision of the king, who was also judge of his people, an appeal could be made, by the or deal of fire and water, to the judgment of Heaven. Importance of Aryan Studies. — This picture of life in the early Aryan home, the elements of which are gathered in so novel a way, is of the very greatest historical value and interest. In these customs and beliefs of the early Aryans, we discover the germs of many of the institutions of modern European nations. Thus, in the honored position assigned the wife in the Aryan household are prefigured the institutions of European chivalry; and in the council of seven around the village patriarch, political historians trace the beginnings of the Parliament of England. • Just as the teachings of the parental roof mould the life and character of the children that go out from under its discipline, so have the influences of that early Aryan home shaped the habits, institutions, and character of those peoples and families that, as its children, went out to establish new homes in their "appointed habitations."
Hope this will give you some clear line about ethnicity of Megh. Why I call and relate them with Mongolian race? Hope you will get it from the pages.

Ref. : 
Outlines of Ancient History. By Myeres, P. V. M.,, published in 1882 by Harper &Brothers. New York. Reference pages from 2 to 11.

4. The Medes and Persians were originally a pastoral people, hut after the establishment of their monarchy, they paid great attention to agriculture and manufactures. Their fields produced every neces sary, and their gardens abounded in the choicest fruits and sweetest flowers. Median vestments, woven of fine wool, and dyed in the gayest colors, were held in the highest esteem, even by the Greeks. In order to receive certain intelligence of the affairs of the provinces, a high road, on which distances were regularly marked, connected the western coast with the seat of government ; and along this road couriers, trained to extraordinary speed, traveled without intermission in the king's name.

Pl see this link for more observations of Alexander Cunningham.

This page is also relevant.