Wednesday, July 29, 2015

129 - DHAIR. (400)

DHAIR. (400)

"UNDER one appellation or other the Dhair belongs to every village community; and, though an outcast according to the Hindoo faith, is indispensable to all ; and in every Deccan village holds a respectable station as one of the barah balootay, or village council. The Dhair also is a wutundar, or hereditary occupant and office holder, and, in truth, is an eminently useful person. He is the protector of the village boundary, in regard to which all particulars are transmitted from father to son. In cases of boundary disputes his evidence is very valuable, and also true, for to give false evidence in respect to it would be to court death at the hands of the local divinities. He is also an authority in reference to sites of houses in villages, and in regard to the divisions of lands and the possessions of each hereditary holder, and can point out their boundaries. The Dhair is also the watchman, in a general sense, of the village and its crops. He has to go his rounds at night among the fields, and warn farmers of depredations whether by men or wild animals. He has to carry letters from one village to another, and it is his office to convey the collections made in the village or town to the head receiver of the district, which he does with celerity and faithfulness. He has to remove the carcasses of dead cattle from the village, and obtains the horns and skin as a perquisite. If a traveller arrives he has to procure lodgings for him, and forage and firewood, for which he receives a gratuity ; then one of the Dhairs has to cany the traveller's baggage, and act as guide to the next village. For these services the Dhairs receive rent free lands, of which they divide the produce, and they can cultivate lands if they please. They have also a right to a certain proportion of grain or other produce from all cultivators, and certain dues at village festivals, marriages, burials, or cremations, in the shape of money, shoes, a turban and waistcloth, &c. As a rule the Dhairs are very industrious. They and their women alone spin the finest thread which is used for the highest class muslins, which is produced from cotton treated in a peculiar manner, and spun in a close room kept lightly watered. In some instances they weave coarse cloth, but indifferently. With all these useful qualifications, however, the Dhairs are outcasts. They are not allowed to live inside a village, but have a suburb of their own, at some little distance from, or even adjoining the walls, where they have, in many instances, their own temples, generally of Hunooman, the monkey god, or of some form of Devi or Bhowanee. They profess to follow Brahmins, by whom many of their ceremonies are performed ; but they have priests of their own, who conduct sacrifices on great occasions. Formerly, under Hindoo rule, Dhairs were much oppressed : they could not wear decent clothing, nor take water, except from certain places ; and they were obliged to carry loads without payment. This, however, is altered now. The Dhair is free to do as he pleases ; he may even send his children, if he chooses, to school. He can enlist into the infantry or cavalry of the line — and Dhairs make excellent soldiers — or into the police, and many are grooms and officers' servants. Although Dhairs are meanly clad, and look miserably poor, yet they are not unfrequently very well off. They can always obtain a livelihood by work, whether in the fields or at home ; and their women, on gala days, arc not unfrequently gaily dressed, and wear gold and silver ornaments. They are as industrious as the men, both in the field and at home. Dhairs eat everything — flesh, fowl, and grain ; but their ordinary food is simple, and their wives are very good cooks. None of them object to ardent spirits, whether men or women ; but, except at some festivals, they do not drink to excess. There can be no doubt that the Dhairs are descended from an aboriginal race ; but what it was, or how they became subject to the Aryans, in the capacity they now are, there exists not even a tradition. In the population of the Central Provinces alone, the Dhairs represent 561,438 souls."

"The People of India" volume-7 cited earlier
Publication year 1874 

Publication: 1872.

128 - Punar: a clan of Megh community in Sindh and Western Rajasthan

पुनड या पुन्हार मेघों का एक गोत्र मन जाता है, जो सिंध और पश्चिमी राजस्थान में निवास करते है। ये प्राचीन काल में सिंध की एक वीर जाति रही है। मेघ समूह की ही एक उपजाति थी। मुस्लमान धर्म के प्रभाव से कई लोग मुस्लमान बन गए व कई लोग मेघ ही बने रहे।
इस पर एक कोमेन्ट people of India से दिया जा रहा है-
"THE Ponhars belong to one of the most ancient, and formerly most powerful, of the local Sindee tribes; but the period of their conversion to Mahomedanism is unknown. It is perhaps a strange feature of these conversions, unknown in India, that each tribe or section of the people has preserved its original distinctions. Thus the Ponhars remain distinct from the Narejas, and have maintained a more military character. The local influence of the Ponhars was destroyed by the Kuloras, with whom they were at feud for many years. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, they and their chief, Kaisar, were driven out of Sontanee by Meer Yar Mahomed, who obtained the aid of the Rind Belochees ; and the present principal residence of the tribe is at Mehar and Sehwan in Central Sind. The dress of the Ponhar shown is very similar to that of the Nareja; but he wears his scarf over both shoulders. The features have not the impressive character of the Belochees, but they have more force than those of the Narejas. The Ponhars at present are not a military class, but are persevering and industrious, and perfectly peaceful subjects."

(See,Description at serial no 315)

Publication: 1872.

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

127 - Inscriptions of King Shivmegh - महाराजा शिवमेघ संबंधी शिलालेख

यह महाराजा शिव मेघ प्रथम का शिलालेख है जो EI के 18वें अंक में 1925 में प्रकाशित हुआ।

Sunday, July 12, 2015

126 - Inscriptions of Megh Kings - मेघ महाराजाओं के शिलालेख

पिछले समय में वैयाकरणिक यदि किसी शब्द में से एक मात्रा कम कर पाते थे तो उन्हें वैसी ही खुशी होती थी जैसे पुराने ज़माने में पुत्र उत्पन्न होने पर होती थी. इतिहासकारों के बारे में भी यह सच है. जब इतिहास से संबंधित कोई नया प्रमाण या आधिकारिक दस्तावेज़ मिल जाता है तो इतिहास लेखक को वैसा ही सुख मिलता है. ताराराम जी ने अपनी पुस्तक मेघवंश इतिहास और संस्कृति, भाग-1 के पृष्ठ 196 से 198 (फोटो नीचे दी गई हैं) तक में महाराजा भद्रमेघ और उनसे संबंधित शिलालेखों का उल्लेख किया था. संभवतः, आज ही उन्हें 1925 में प्रकाशित एपिग्राफिया इंडिका वाल्यूम 18, से नई सामग्री मिली है जो एक शिलालेख पर आधारित है. यह आपसे शेयर की जा रही है.

महाराजा भद्र मेघ का कोसम शिलालेख, जैसा कि एपिग्राफिया इंडिका के 1925 के अंक 18 में प्रकाशित हुआ। उसकी फ़ोटो नीचे पेस्ट की जा रही है। महाराजा भद्र मेघ मेघ वंश का एक प्रतापी महाराजा था, जिसने कौशाम्बी और बघेलखण्ड पर शासन किया था। मेघवंश इतिहास और संस्कृति भाग 1 में इस पर कुछ विशेष प्रकाश डाला गया है। उस पुस्तक में कोई शिलालेख नहीं दिए गए है। परंतु उल्लेख है। कृपया पुस्तक के सन्दर्भ से इस मूल शिलालेख को मिला कर विचार करे।
सन्दर्भ: Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 pp 158 and onward.

कोसम शिलालेख: iii शिलालेख महाराजा भद्र मेघ का व ii महाराजा शिव मेघ से सम्बंधित है। इन दोनों महाराजाओं का संक्षिप्त वर्णन मेघवंश इतिहास और संस्कृति भाग 1 में यतस्ततः किया गया है!
     ये शिलालेख पहली बार एपिग्राफिया इंडिका के खंड 18 में प्रकाशित हुए परंतु अभी भी इतिहासकारों के अध्ययन में नहीं आये है। विस्तृत अध्ययन और शोध अपेक्षित है!

Wednesday, July 8, 2015

125 - Cunningham's table of dynasties and period of Megs kings in Punjab, Texila, Lat(Gujarat)etc.

कनिंघम महोदय के अनुसार ईसा पूर्व सन 80 में तक्षशिला आदि में मेघों की सत्ता स्थापित थी। नीचे दी गयी सारिणी देखे और समझें

124 - Megh Coins found in Punjab and Afghanistan

THE JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. में जॉन विल्सन द्वारा प्राचीन सिक्कों की पहचान के बारे में लिखे गए एक संक्षिप्त शोध आलेख का कुछ अंश यहाँ ज्यों का त्यों दिया जा रहा है। जिसमे उनके पास पंजाब और अफ़ग़ानिस्तान में प्राप्त हुए कुछ सिक्के भेजे गए थे, उनके विश्लेषण कराटे हुए उनमे मेघवंश के सिक्कों का वर्णन किया है। इससे यह बात प्रमाणित होती है कि ईसवी शताब्दी प्रारम्भ होने से पहले कन्नौज, पंजाब और अफ़ग़ानिस्तान में मेघों का राज्य था। विल्सन ने इन सिक्कों को क्षत्रप सिक्कों की श्रेणी में रखा है। ज्यादा जानकारी के लिए मूल लेख देखा जा सकता है, जो एशियाटिक जर्नल मे पब्लिश है-

"Art. X. — Brief Notes on certain Ancient Coins lately presented to or exhibited before the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society."
( Pages 126 to 131 )
By John Wilson,
D. D. Honorary President of the Society.

Original Text follows as under:

..."..................but having no Barbarian titles," I find in Captain Christopher's collection nine of Soter MEGAS, of two or three types. They belong to a class which is exceedingly numerous not only in the Panjab, where they were found, but in Afghanistan, where Mr. Masson procured two hundred and fifty seven specimens in three years. They have on the obverse generally a helmeted or coronated king with a nimbus, with out any inscription ; and on the reverse the figure of a man mounted on horseback, with the legend BA2ILEY2 BA2ILEQN SQTHP MEr- A2 sometimes in a corrupted form. "The large number of these coins," says professor Lassen, " prove that this [nameless] king possessed an ample empire, and did not reign for a short time. He must have ruled in Kabul and a part of the Panjab." The same distinguished Antiquarian and Orientalist says that " he must have belonged to a certain Scythian horde, which had for some time their abode in a country, where purely Greek and not native characters were adopted for the coins." He adds, " At an after period he perhaps used them ; if indeed the coins with native legends which M. Mionnet assigns him, be really his." In one specimen now before us, there is the appearance of such a legend as that now referred to, but the letters are so indistinct that nothing can be made of them. Mr. Prinsep makes the nameless Soter MEGAS flourish about 70 years B. C. He must have been prior to the conquest of the Panjab and Kabul by Vikramaditya, whose era, 56 before Christ, dates from a victory over the Scythians in the Panjab. Of the Kadphises group of Indo-Scythian coins, referrible to the time between the Christian era and the century following, there are seven specimens in Capt. Christopher's collection. It also furnishes ten of the Kanerhi group ; fifteen of the Indian Kanavj dynasty ; eleven coins which I have not yet been able to class, but of which something may be made ; twenty-one coins which are much defaced ; and one hundred and twenty one with Arabic and Persian inscriptions. None of these series, I have found time sufficiently to examine ; but, perhaps, I may be able to direct attention to some of them at a subsequent meeting of the Society, particularly if any peculiarities appear in them worthy of distinct notice. They form altogether a valuable accession to our Museum." Page 131

Please add it in last of megh coins punjab/afghanistan

"3. Dr. Wilson, on behalf of Captain Christopher. I. N., present the Society a collection of ancient coins made by that gentleman during his late voyages of research and experiment on the Indus. These coins had been assorted and arranged by Dr. Wilson. A great number of them belong to the Bactrian and Indo-Scythian and Kanauj dynasties, including one of Heliocles, one of Azes, nine of Soter Megas, seven of the Kadphises group, ten of the Kanerki, fourteen of the Kanauj or ancient Hindee series, eleven not yet identified, but of which some thing may be made, and twenty one much defaced. There were also 121, with Arabic and Persian characters, which had not yet been ex amined. On the most remarkable of these coins, and the Parthian coin lately exhibited by Dr. Buist, and some specimens from Dr. Wilson's own collection, some notes were read by Dr. Wilson, which will appear in the next number of the Society's Journal. A continuation of his paper was promised, should anything of novelty or interest be discovered on a further study of Captain Christopher's valuable gatherings." Page 185







Year of publication: 18 5 1.

123 - Kutch and Megh





"Of Depressed Castes there were four with a strength of 36,306 souls or 9.85 per cent of the whole Hindu population. Of these 35,142 were Meghvals, 837 Paradhis and 161 Mes, and 166 Bhangias. Meoghva'ls, also found in Sind, the Ganges Provinces, and Central Himalayas, ( 1 Vivien de St. Martin Geog.Grec. et Latine de l'lnde, 209. The Meghs, probably the Magians of Timur, are a large part of the population of Riyasi, Jammu and Aknur, a pure race of low caste, apparently outcaste in other places. They are perhaps the Mekei of the Aryans and to them belong the Mekhowal (Makvanas). They claim to be Sarasvat Brahmans. Cunningham, Arch. Rep. II. 13. Burnes (Royal Geog. Soc. IV. 93) speaks of the Megvars of South Thar as an aboriginal or Jat race. They are probably connected with the Mehars of lower Sind and the Megharis of Baluchistan, and are, perhaps, Pliny's (77) Megari or Megalloe and the Mokars of the Rajput chronicles. Vivien de St. Martin, 198. Burton (Sind 323) speaks of Sind Meghawars as Dheds or Meghvals, tanners, shoemakers and weavers, found in many parts of Sind. The Umarkot Meghawars were very well-to-do, with priests, guraras, and sacred books, polhit of their own. They were said to come from Malwa.) state that in a twelve years' drought in Kathiawar they became degraded by carrying and skinning dead cattle. Of nine branches, Bhuchiya, Bhuringya, Dhua, Dhopra, Gora, Kopal, Rhola, Runnal, and Rosya, they weave cloth, labour, and carry dead cattle. They worship goddesses. They have no headman, but the farmer of the tax on skinners of dead cattle is acknowledged as their head. Breakers of caste rules are required to give a dinner to their priests, gors. These priests Garudas enjoy the revenue and are the pujdris of the snake temple at Bhujia fort (see p. 64). On his accession a Garuda pujdri marks the new Rao's brow with saffron and ties a turban on his head. Bhangia's, scavengers, are said to be sprung from a certain Valam, who about 2000 years ago started the profession of sweeping. There are six branches, Dhori, Makvana, Parmar, Rathod, Solanki, and Vaghela. They worship goddesses, different families having different guardian deities. The Paradhis and Mes half Hindu, half Musalman, are hunters and weavers of leaf mats. . .." Page-83

"Village: In the province of Cutch there is one village or town to about every six square miles, each village containing on an average 475 inhabitants and about 163 houses. With the exception of the people of six towns, numbering 91,085 souls or 18"69 per cent of the entire inhabitants, the population of Cutch, according to the 1872 census returns, lived in 1019 villages, with an average of 388 souls to each village." Page 100

"Cutch villages are, as a rule, small and fenced by thorn hedges with one or two openings facing the east. The gates, made of thorns and moving on wooden hinges, are during harvest time closed at night. Some villages have high round watch-towers, kothds, generally out of repair. Outside the gate is a Hanuman, a large shapeless stone, a Mahadev's, and sometimes a Shitladevi's, temple, and a pond generally dry in the hot season, except a hole dug in its bed. To meet the cost of repairs, some ponds and wells have lands and Acacia arabica, babul, groves attached. At the entrance gate are the houses of the Meghval, the Kathodia, the Pinjara, the Kumbhar, and other low caste non-cultivating classes. Then follow, in the case of large villages, the houses of the barber, the tailor, the carpenter, the black smith, and the cultivators. In the centre are the houses of the village shopkeeper, the Brahman, the devotee, atit or gorji in Jain villages, a temple generally dedicated to Ram or Krishna, and sometimes a Musalman mosque. The houses, built of stone and mud, have, except in the Kora sub-division and in Pachham and a few other places on the Ran, tiled roofs. Near the gate is a large fold, vada, for sheep and goats, of which every village has one or two flocks. Fodder and cattle are kept in separate enclosures, where a member of the family usually sleeps."
"There was, in 1872, a total of 167,378 houses, or, on an average, 25' 75 houses to the square mile. Of the total number, 37,785 houses lodging 99,790 persons or 20-47 per cent of the entire population, at the rate of 2.64 souls to each house, were buildings with walls of fire-baked bricks and roofs of tile. The remaining 129,593 houses, accommodating 387,515 persons or 79'52 per cent with a population per house of 2-99 souls, included all buildings covered with thatch or leaves or whose outer walls were of mud or sun-dried brick." Page 101

Meghvals are Sober and Hard working:

"Of Leather Workers there was one class with a strength of 1237 souls or 0-33 per cent of the whole Hindu population. The Mochis came from Gujarat about 200 years ago, and from their family names Dabhi, Parmar, Chohan, Jhala, Makvana, Chudasma, and Solanki seem to have once been Rajputs. Their home language is Gujarati. They are generally rather fair and dress like other Cutchis. They used to drink liquor and eat flesh, but since they adopted the religion of Svaminarayan they have given them up. They are clean, sober, well-behaved, and rather idle. They make shoes in native and European fashion, saddles, water-bags, and bottles. Four houses work as gold and silver carvers, forty as embroiderers on wool and silk, making table cloths, caps, shoes, slippers, and handkerchiefs, and five as arm-polishers and gilders. They do not clean or tan hides. They earn enough for ordinary expenses and as a rule are well-dressed. They belong to the Svaminarayan sect. Their marriage, birth, and death customs do not differ from those of other Hindus. Their family goddesses are Ashapura, Chavan, and Brahmani. They have a headman, but disputes are decided at mass meetings. Besides the Mochis, the Meghvals and Turiyas clean, tan, and dye leather. The Meghvals also make shoes and are cobblers. The Turiyas are Muhammadans, generally earning their living as tanners and leather dyers." Page-83

"There are five hundred families of Gujarat Hindu shoemakers, settled chiefly at Bhuj. The Meghvals, another class of Hindu shoemakers do not mix with them. About seventy-five of them have capital, varying from £10 to £50 (Rs. 100-500) invested in ornaments or lent at interest. They earn from 9d. to Is. 3d., (as. 6 - 10) a day. They keep sixteen holidays in the year, and are sober and hardworking." Page 128

Majal Math and Meghwals
"Majal, or Manjal, a village seventeen miles west of Bhuj, has, about two miles to the north-west, in a low country surrounded by hills and overgrown with bushes, the ruins of Punvaranogad, Padhargad, Chapter XIII. or Patan, still showing traces of having once been a large well -peopled piaeeg oTlnterest city. Here, in 1830, a great number of Indo-Sassanian coins were found buried in a copper vessel.1 The walls, 2385 yards round, are easily traced, though all the masonry, except one narrow gateway on the west, has gone to decay.3 Within the walls are the ruins of two palaces, a mint, and a temple of Mahadev, all of stone without any trace of wood. In style they closely resemble the Kera ruins. Pun varanogad' s story is that it was built about a thousand years ago (878) by one Punvar son of Ghaa or Ghav, the chief of Kera in Cutch.3 Quarrelling with his family, Punvar, whose chief characteristic seems to have been cruelty, resolved to found a city and call it after his own name. When the city was finished, the architect was rewarded by having both his hands chopped off that he might not do work like it for any one else. Soon after, seven devotees renowned for their virtues and miracles came from Rum-Sham (Anatolia and Syria), and settled in a high hill near Punvaranogad. Hearing of their fame Punvar's childless queen had an underground passage dug from the palace to the devotees' hill. Helping them in the service of their god Yaksh,or Jakh,she after six months prayed them to ask the god to give her a son. But, for her husband's sins, until a sacrifice was offered in the palace, the prayer could not be granted. By the underground passage the holy men entered the palace and were performing their rites when Punvar, hearing there were strange men in the women's rooms, forced his way in, seized the devotees, and set them with bare feet to tread out corn in a threshing floor bristling with harrow-spikes. Pitying their sufferings a friendly barber offered to take the place of one of them, while he went to call Yaksh to their aid. Yaksh, from western Asia, heard the prayer, and, with an earthquake that shook the hills, appeared with seventy-one brothers and a sister, Sayari.4 Called on to give up the holy men, Punvar refused and by the help of the gods and a magic amulet suffered nothing from the arrows of Yaksh' s brothers. Then Sayari, taking the form of a mosquito, bit Punvar on the arm so that he drew off his amulet, and, in the siege, a stone falling from the roof broke his head. Yaksh cursed the town and it has since lain desolate.6 Another story is that in the eighth century of the Christian era, King Punvar oppressing the Sanghars, they sought the aid of some foreigners from western Asia. Seventy-two horsemen came, and, establishing themselves on a hill three miles from Punvaranogad, took the fort and killed the chief. The Sanghars named this hill Kakad- gad in honour of the strange leader Kakad, and, out of respect for the saviours, called them Yakshas after the fair-skinned horse-riding demi-gods of that name.1 In their honour the Sanghars made images Places oFlnterest. °^ tne seventy-two horsemen, set them on a railed platform on Punvaranogad, with their faces towards the south, and instituted a Masjau* a fair on the second Monday of Bhddrapad (September -October). This fair lasting two days is attended by about 16,000 pilgrims, mostly Cutch Hindus. Except the Sanghars, who are staunch devotees of the Yakshas and believe in no other gods, most of the pilgrims attend either for trade or pleasure. The trade, in rice, sugar, oil, almonds, cardamoms, pulses, cocoanuts, groceries, cloth, wood, bullocks, horses, camels, goats, sheep, cows, buffaloes, and other articles, is valued at from £5000 to £7500 (Rs. 50,000 - 75,000). The large palace, upper storied and surrounding an open quadrangle, about fifty-five feet square and twenty high, tastefully built of very large blocks of stone, stands on the north side of the city. The front porch and colonnade are ornamented with carving. The upper story and the very heavy stone terraced roof are each supported by eighty -four pillars, each pillar one block of stone, round, and with capitals carved into figures of men and animals. The small, or half -day palace, addho tiro, for it was only twelve hours building, one storied, of stone, and with rather poor carving, is forty feet long by thirty-three broad. There are two rooms in the back with two verandahs. The roof is a flat terrace of massive stone slabs, joined with dove-tails of iron and plastered with cement 1 \ inches thick. It seems to have stood in a garden watered by a well now filled with earth and stones and overgrown with trees. In the centre of a platform, 7 feet 9 inches high 160 feet long and 41 wide, stands a temple of Mahadev, 50 feet 9 inches long and 22 feet 3 inches wide. In each corner of the platform is a small ruined shrine. Between the ruined entrance and the porch is a hollow for sacrificial fire, agnikund. The temple, facing the west, of blocks of grey and black iron sandstone put together without cement, must have stood about fifty feet high. The porch, 26 i feet long and 18 wide, has 16 pilasters and 8 square, 12 feet high, pillars forming two aisles. In the brackets are figures of men and lions. The dome has fallen, but an upper floor, with rosettes in the middle of the ceiling and a cornice of creeping plants cut in the stone, is entire. Above the lintel are large figures of musicians. The upper part of the shrine has fallen and been rebuilt. Near the temple are some tombstones apparently of later date, but without any writing.
"At some distance west of the fort are two ruined Mahadev temples. Chapter XIII. They are said to have been built by Dheds or Meghvals, but Places of Interest, the richness of the sculpture and the size and style of the materials Majal or make this doubtful. One of them, of the same stone as the ' half- day Manjal. palace,' stands on a platform 70 feet long 50 wide and 15 high, built of large blocks ornamented with bands of carving and with a ruined shrine at each corner. In front of the central shrine were two domed porches, one of which is still standing. In this porch, ten feet high pillars support a dome of excellent workmanship with, under its centre, a sacred fire hollow, agnikund. The shrine, with a richly carved doorway, is ten feet square. The other temple, smaller and standing on a platform twenty feet broad, is all in ruins.1 Of the mint the only trace is a low stone wall enclosing a space of 1 20 by 80 feet. Inside of the enclosure is a small building apparently once a temple." Pages 234-237




122 - Bhambi or bambhi as Balahi or बलाई: Ajmer and Mairwara

अजमेर परगने में गांव बाम्भी को बलाई भी कहा जाता था। यह बलाई मेघवालों में से ही होता था। इसलिए मेघवालों को यहाँ बलाई भी कहा जाने लगा। वह सरकार का नौकर कहलाता था और उसे कुछ वेतन भी मिलता था। आजादी के बाद यह ख़त्म कर दिए गए उनका कोई पुनर्वास नहीं हुआ जबकि बाकि सभी सरकारी ओहदेदारों का पुनर्वास हुआ या उन्हें दूसरे पदों पर समायोजित किया परंतु गांव बाम्भी या गांव बलाई का कोई समायोजन नहीं हुआ।सन 1853 की अजमेर की राजस्व रिपोर्ट के कुछ अंश देखिये:

"11th. The Bulahee is a village servant, whose duty it is to cause the attendance of the Zemindars at the Tuhseel Kutcherry, for the payment of the Government dues. He is employed in working the Jureeb when the measurement of land is required ; reports village incidents or waradats to the Thannahdar, and gives information to the Tuhseel of matters relating to the filling of the tulaos, or of occasional accidents that may happen to them.: his salary per mensem varies from eight annas to two rupees. This servant is only removable by the Superintendent, on full cause assigned." Page-89

"13th. The Bulahee is a village servant, whose duty it is to cause the attendance of the Zemindars at the Tehseel Cutcherry, for the payment of the Government dues. He is employed in working the Jureeb, when the measurement of land is required. Reports village incidents or waradats to the Thanadar, and gives information to the Tehseel, of matters relating to the filling of the tulaos, or of occasional accidents that may happen to them. His salary is fixed at two dumrees per rupee on the Government demand. This servant is only removable by the Superintendent, on full cause assigned." Page-181


Edited by :
Commissioner, AJ M E E R AND MAIRWARA.


Sunday, July 5, 2015

121 - Balahi Dher by CHARLES.. GRANT

".............The city thread is spun by the families of the weavers and others, the best being produced by the Balahi (Dher) caste. A coarser thread is generally spun throughout the country by the women of almost every caste. It is woven into every description of common cloth by the Burhanpdr weavers, even the best of them, when out of fine work, having to take to the commoner stuffs........" page130-131

"...........The looms are somewhat elaborate in their gear, and difficult to work. The weaver has to serve a long apprenticeship before he becomes a skilled workman. High commendation and several prizes were awarded to specimens of these fabrics at the recent Exhibitions at Agra, Lucknow, Nagpur, Jabalpur, and Akola. The coarser fabrics consist of stout cotton-cloth, either white or dyed in various colours. The manufacture is carried on all over the district. Indeed there is hardly a considerable village that has not a number of persons engaged in this manufacture. The workmen are chiefly Dhers. The rest of the manufactures are unimportant, and may be dismissed in a few words. They consist of blankets, white and black, made from indigenous wool, tatpatti, or sacking, coarse basket-work, common pottery, and some creditable brass work consisting of lotas, katoras, and cooking utensils. These last, however, are made only in a very few towns."

And so on.... see ref.

Second Edition. 1870.

Saturday, July 4, 2015

120 - Bhamauri Taluka and Meghwar

Taluka Bhamauri was acquired by Afghans of the same stock, named Yusaf and Sulaiman, during the reign of Shahjahan. Thev Nah. ' 8 8 J . " resided at Bhikampur, which now frequently gives i» name to the family. They added considerably to their possessions, but were twice ejected, once by the Bhartpur Jats in 1757 A.D., and again by Indurgir Go- shain, who during the government of Najaf Khan established a temporary supremacy in these parganahs. Nah was originally held by Megdhwar Rajputs who were dispossessed by the Jats, and their lands were given to Baz Khan by De Boigne in 1793-94 A.D. The grant was confirmed by the British Govern ment in 1803, and the two talukas were joined together under the name of Bha mauri Nah. In 1856 they comprised 61 villages, paying a revenne of Rs. 42,313. B&z Khan had three sons — Muhammad Khan, Khanzaman Khan, and Daud Khan, who divided the estates between them. Hadi Yar Khan, the son of Mu hammad Khan, now owns one-third, and has taken up his residence at Dadon. Khanzaman's share has been divided into three smaller talukas, — two held by his sons, Abdul Shakur Khan and Muhammad Taki Khan, and one by his grandson. Daud Khan's share again has been equally divided between his two sons, Tnayat- ullah Khan and Ghulam Ahmad Khan. In spite of these subdivisions each member of the family still retains a considerable property. Hadi Yar Khan holds 32 villages in Aligarh and the large estate of Mohanpur in Eta. Abdul Shakur Khan and his brother and nephew hold 48 villages in Aligarh and several estates in Eta, and the sons of Daud Khan hold 15 villages each, besides estates in the adjoining district. During the mutiny Daud Khan's conduct was very suspicious. Mr. Sapte writes that he refused to furnish supplies to the Buland- shahr force on their way to Eta, and "for two days we were put to great inconvenience, and his personal bearing towards us was disrespectful in the extreme. Of the movements and intentions of the rebels at Kasganj he feigned complete ignorance, though his house was but a few miles from that town.

Reference: North Western provinces of India volume-2, page 115
By Edwin t Atkinson,
Allahabad, 1875

119 - Dheds in Bharuch - भरूच में ढेढ

From page 45 --
" The principal cultivating classes have now been enumerated. The Dhers form a very large part of the population of the zilla : those among them who enjoy pussaeeta. land, for performing such common duties of the village as are allotted to them, often cultivate it themselves. The duties of the Dhers are well known to be as follow :—to carry the baggage of all travellers as far as the next village on the road—to be the village scavengers—to act occasionally, too, as watchmen in the kully—to convey letters from the public functionaries and Patells to the next village ; thence to be forwarded, by a Dher or Bunghee of that place, on the road to their destination. Money also, or other valuables, is sent in this manner with perfect safety; and they are intelligencers, and know well how to show boundaries. There are often many Dhers in a village who are not entitled to share in the pussaeeta. Spinning and weaving are principal occupations of the Dhers, by which, and their other means, they get a very good livelihood ; and in some villages they pay a tax. The coarse cloth worn for cumberbunds, &c. by all the cultivating classes, is manufactured by the Dhers. The Dhers in general are to be distinguished by a peculiar appearance of strength, activity, and energy : they have clean skins and well-made persons, and they commonly speak better Hindoostanee than any of the other villagers, excepting the Bunghee : they drink liquor and eat opium, but are rarely seen in a state of intoxication. The Dhers stand in the lowest division of the scale of Hindoo caste; but the ties of caste are no less binding with them than with those who stand higher on that scale : nor is the punishment of expulsion from caste less severe to them than to others; and, upon the whole, they may be considered as upon a footing with their fellow-villagers, as to the enjoyments of life. I have seen (in the paper of Mr. Marshall’s, before alluded to) some very touching declamation on the predestined and indelible infamy to which this race was thought to be doomed, and of the mingled scorn and horror with which a pure sleek Hindoo views the outcast Dher! As far as my experience and observation go, I am a stranger to this picture. I have never seen, in the communication between the other villagers and the Dhers, any thing to give rise to the ideas that this colouring is calculated to excite; and the Dher, although of a low caste, is not an outcast; but, on the contrary, talks of the rules of his caste, and values himself upon being a member of it with the same feeling that actuates those of an higher order. Besides, if they themselves felt the degradation that is made the subject of such warm descriptions, why do they not escape from it by some of the modes which are obviously open to them of doing so? There is scarcely an instance of a Dher of this part of the country entering into our regular battalions, which would be exchanging infamy, scorn, and degradation (if such be really their lot) for the road to promotion, distinction, and, comparatively, riches. By becoming converts, too, to Mahomedanism or Christianity, the same happy change might be effected; but converts to either religion are, I believe, as rare from the Dhers (unless they have previously become outcasts) as from Hindoos of more fortunate birth. The houses of the Dhers, Bunghees, and Kalpas, or leather-dressers, commonly form a quarter of the village distinct from the rest." Page-46

The Bhungees- The Bunghee is still below the Dher, and may be said to be at the very bottom of the scale of Hindoo castes..............."..(page 46)

..from page 52--"............... It is also believed, that money and valuables are deposited, and money often lent, without any other security than such as may be derived from the books and accounts of the parties. The reciprocal trust implied in these transactions must be the result of a conviction of each other’s honesty. It is the constant practice to send sums of money from the villages, on account of revenue, to the public treasury, by the hands of Burthuneeas and Dhers; and I never heard of a single breach of trust in a case of this kind." Page 52



"Memoir on the zilla of Baroche"
: being the result of a revenue, statistical, and topographical survey of that collectorate"
BY: Lt. Col. Monier William
Bombay education society's press.Bombay
Year of publication: 1852, Pages - 45, 46, 52 etc.

भरूच जिला गुजरात प्रान्त में आया हुआ है। अगस्त 1803 में यह अंग्रेजो के पूर्ण स्वामित्व में आ गया। जिसे अंग्रेजों ने जिला बनाया, उसमे 6 परगने थे। राजस्व के लिहाज से अंग्रेजों ने इस जिलेंक सर्वे कराया। सन 1811 में यह सर्वे शुरू हुआ और 1816 में पूरा हुआ। भरुच जिले के जान जीवन के बारे में भी इसमे महत्वपूर्ण जानकारी है। हालाँकि इस सर्वे में मेघ या मेघवाल नाम से उल्लेख नहीं है, परंतु ढेढ या ढेर (dher) शब्द उन्ही के लिए प्रयुक्त है। उनके बारे में किये गए उल्लेख को नीचे ज्यों का त्यों लिखा गया है। (Bharuche- It lies along the eastern shore of the Gulf of Cambay, and comprises six purgunnas; viz. the Baroche, the Unklesur, the Hansot, the J umboosur, the Amod, and the Dehej. The first was obtained by conquest from Dowlut Rao Scindia, in August 1803-: the other five are cessions from the late Paishwa; the Unklesur and the Hansot, by the treaty of Bassein, December the 31st, 1802; and the three last, by the treaty of Poona, June the 13th, 1817. The survey was first ordered in the year 1811 ; but it being a new measure, and one of doubtful issue, it was proceeded in cautiously and slowly at the commencement. As experience demonstrated the practicability and manifold advantages of the plan, additional means were employed; and the whole of the original Baroche Collectorate, viz. the Baroche, Unklesur, and Hansot purgunnas, was completed early in 1816. The investigation and settlement of all claims to rent-free lands went hand in hand with the survey ; and no question as to the rights of Govern ment and individuals, even in a single field throughout that extent of territory, remained unadjusted. The survey was next transferred to the Surat jurisdiction ; but before much was done there, the three purgunnas of J umboosur, Amod, and Dehej having been added to the Baroche Col lectorate, it was thought advisable to complete these, which was done early in 1820. As the operation extended, and more experience and knowledge were gained, the advantages multiplied in an increased ratio ; and the survey was then instituted at one and the same time in the three collectorates of Alnnedabad,'Kaira, and Surat, under the original super intendence.)